1889 – 1920 Modernizing America

Gertrude Kasebier (photographer), Zitkala Sa, Sioux Indian and activist, c. 1898. Gertrude Kasebier, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.

Key Ideas

1. New opportunities arose in the realms of education, recreation, and social reform, but traditional gender roles and stereotypes still significantly shaped women’s lives.

2. While the era saw an increase in the number of women working for pay, the vast majority of women were still contributing to the family economy via unpaid housework and childcare.

3. Involvement in activism was a powerful outlet for women of diverse backgrounds to step beyond the home and fight for change.

4. The persistence