1832 – 1877 A Nation Divided Supplemental Materials

Art Activities

Abolitionist Crafts

In the 1800s, women were expected to conform to behaviors and roles that society deemed “appropriate,” and were not supposed to express their political beliefs publicly. Despite these constraints, women during the Antebellum period found ways to contribute to the Abolitionist Movement. Many made anti-slavery crafts that were sold to support the political and legal branches of the movement. Women used their domestic skills to create these crafts, including sewing, needlepoint, and doll making.

Students will consider the process and politics behind an abolitionist flag created in Andover, Ohio in 1859. After analyzing this antebellum-era craft and the ways in which the creator used it to express her beliefs, students will create their own version of an abolitionist flag inspired by the constitution of the Salem Female Anti-Slavery Society using hand-stitching and appliqué.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Sanitary Fairs

The word “diorama” was first used in France in 1822, when Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre and his coworker Charles-Marie Bouton opened an exhibition called The Diorama. The original “diorama” created the impression of movement in a painting by altering the light on and behind the image. In 1839, Daguerre invented the daguerreotype, the first publicly available photographic process, leading to innovations in photography that would capture the realities of the Civil War. By the mid-1800s, dioramas would evolve into small-scale replicas of a scene, and later larger-scale replicas in museum exhibitions. During the Civil War, women created dioramas that advanced the Union cause. They contributed to the war effort by organizing Sanitary Fairs where their dioramas and other crafts were sold to raise funds for hospitals and soldiers wounded in battle.

After analyzing a diorama made for a Union Sanitary Fair in the 1860s, students will choose a ​WAMS​ life story to study to learn about a woman who lived through the Civil War. Students will then create a diorama depicting a scene that captures the woman they studied taking action.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Elizabeth Keckley

Elizabeth Keckley was a self-emancipated woman, abolitionist, and accomplished dressmaker. When she moved from St. Louis to Washington, D.C. in 1860, she established her own business and cultivated a clientele of the wives of the political elite. Elizabeth was recommended to Mary Todd Lincoln, the new First Lady of the United States. The dresses Elizabeth made for the First Lady were praised for their modern look and exquisite detail, and incorporated the social expectations of women, rules of mourning, and Mary Todd’s role as a mother figure to the nation.

Elizabeth Keckley gained both her freedom and her renown through her talents as a dressmaker. Elizabeth’s dresses made important statements, both about herself as the dressmaker and about the person who wore her designs. After reading Elizabeth Keckley’s life story, students will imagine that they are fashion designers designing clothing for a modern social or political figure. They will create a fashion illustration that captures the beliefs of the woman whom they are “dressing.” They should keep in mind materials and styles that speak to the person’s identity and role as well as the mood of the nation. Students will draw their designs on a croqui and add color using watercolor pencils.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Source Notes

Antebellum

Salem Female Anti-Slavery Society

  • Congregational Library and Archives, History Matters, Salem Female Anti-Slavery Society, Collection History, http://www.congregationallibrary.org/nehh/series3/SFASS, accessed 5/26/2020.
  • Jones, Martha S., All Bound Up Together: The Woman Question in African American Public Culture 1830–1900 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2007).
  • Jones, Martha S., Birthright Citizens: A History of Race and Rights in Antebellum America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018).

Abolitionist Crafts

  • Jeffrey, Julie Roy. “Permeable Boundaries: Abolitionist Women and Separate Spheres.” Journal of the Early Republic 21, no. 1 (2001): 79–93, accessed 5/28/20. doi:10.2307/3125097.
  • Wallace-Sanders, Kimberly, Mammy: A Century of Race, Gender, and Southern Memory (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2009).
  • Lavender, Catherine. “Notes on The Cult of Domesticity and True Womanhood” (PDF). The College of Staten Island/City University of New York, retrieved 10/27/14.

Freedom Bonds

  • Jones, Martha S., Birthright Citizens: A History of Race and Rights in Antebellum America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018).
  • Jenkins, Ebony, Freedom Licenses in St. Louis City and County 1835–1865. Gateway Arch National Park. https://www.nps.gov/jeff/learn/historyculture/upload/Freedom%20License%20Report.pdf, accessed 5/28/2020.
  • Ramey Berry, Daina, and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Plantation Slavery

  • “Statistics on Slavery,” Weber University. https://faculty.weber.edu/kmackay/statistics_on_slavery.htm, accessed 5/29/20.
  • The slave account book of Charles Benedict Calvert of Prince George’s County, Maryland, ca. 1830–1860. University of Maryland Library Digital Collections, https://hdl.handle.net/1903.1/5750, accessed 5/29/20.
  • Ramey Berry, Daina and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Camp, Stephanie M.H., Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

Fighting Segregation

  • Volk, Kyle G. Moral Minorities and the Making of American Democracy. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).
  • Burrows, Edwin G., and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
  • New-York Historical Society, “Before Rosa Parks: Segregation on New York City Streetcars,” From the Stacks Blog, February 20, 2019, http://blog.nyhistory.org/before-rosa-parks-taking-on-new-yorks-segregated-street-cars/, accessed 5/28/2020.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  • “Harriet Beecher Stowe,” Digital Exhibits, UWM Libraries Special Collections, http://liblamp.uwm.edu/omeka/SPC2/exhibits/show/classictext/stowe, accessed 6/2/2020.
  • Washington, Margaret, “Religion, Reform, and Antislavery,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Pro- and Anti-Slavery Children’s Literature

  • Bakker, Jan. “Another Dilemma of an Intellectual in the Old South: Caroline Gilman, the Peculiar Institution, and Greater Rights for Women in the Rose Magazines.” The Southern Literary Journal 17, no. 1 (1984): 12–25, www.jstor.org/stable/20077747, accessed 6/1/20.
  • Townsend, Hannah, 1812–, “The Anti-Slavery Alphabet,” The News Media and the Making of America, 1730–1865, https://americanantiquarian.org/earlyamericannewsmedia/items/show/49, accessed 6/1/20.
  • Jones-Rogers, Stephanie E. They Were Her Property: White Women as Slave Owners in the American South (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2019).

Slavery and Indian Removal

  • Krauthamer, Barbara, Black Slaves, Indian Masters: White Women as Slave Owners in the American South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2013).
  • Letter from Molly Nail, February 20, 1832, and October 13, 1832. Senate Doc. 512, part 3, 23rd Cong,. 2nd sess., 210, 484.
  • Bradley R. Clampitt, ed., The Civil War and Reconstruction in Indian Territory (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2015).

Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

  • Jacobs, Harriet, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (West Berlin, NJ: The Townsend Press, 2004).
  • Washington, Margaret, “Religion, Reform, and Antislavery,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Ramey Berry, Daina, and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Resistance

  • Foner, Eric, Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad (New York: W.W. Norton, 2015).
  • Ramey Berry, Daina and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Rawick, George, ed., The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, series 2., vol. 5, Texas Narratives, Part 4, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1972).
  • Camp, Stephanie M.H., Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

Bleeding Kansas

  • “Lydia Maria Child,” The Poetry Foundation. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/lydia-maria-child, accessed 6/5/2020.
  • Earle, Jonathan, and Diane Mutti Burke, eds. Bleeding Kansas, Bleeding Missouri: The Long Civil War on the Border (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013).
  • Washington, Margaret, “Religion, Reform, and Antislavery,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Urban Slavery

  • Bellamy, Donnie D. “Macon, Georgia, 1823–1860: A Study in Urban Slavery.” Phylon (1960–) vol. 45, no. 4 (1984): 298–310, doi:10.2307/274910, accessed 8/6/20.
  • Gallati, Barbara Dayer, ed., Making American Taste: Narrative Art for a New Democracy (London: Giles, 2011).

 Life Story: Harriet Robinson Scott

  • The State Historical Society of Missouri, “Harriet Robinson Scott,” Historic Missourians, https://historicmissourians.shsmo.org/historicmissourians/name/s/scotth/, accessed 6/8/2020.
  • Corbett, Katharine T. In Her Place: A Guide to St. Louis Women’s History (St. Louis, MI: Missouri Historical Society Press, 1999).
  • Swain, Gwenyth. Dred and Harriet Scott: A Family’s Struggle for Freedom (St. Paul, MN: Borealis Books, 2004).
  • Ramey Berry, Daina and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and S