1832 – 1877 A Nation Divided Supplemental Materials

Art Activities

Abolitionist Crafts

In the 1800s, women were expected to conform to behaviors and roles that society deemed “appropriate,” and were not supposed to express their political beliefs publicly. Despite these constraints, women during the Antebellum period found ways to contribute to the Abolitionist Movement. Many made anti-slavery crafts that were sold to support the political and legal branches of the movement. Women used their domestic skills to create these crafts, including sewing, needlepoint, and doll making.

Students will consider the process and politics behind an abolitionist flag created in Andover, Ohio in 1859. After analyzing this antebellum-era craft and the ways in which the creator used it to express her beliefs, students will create their own version of an abolitionist flag inspired by the constitution of the Salem Female Anti-Slavery Society using hand-stitching and appliqué.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Sanitary Fairs

The word “diorama” was first used in France in 1822, when Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre and his coworker Charles-Marie Bouton opened an exhibition called The Diorama. The original “diorama” created the impression of movement in a painting by altering the light on and behind the image. In 1839, Daguerre invented the daguerreotype, the first publicly available photographic process, leading to innovations in photography that would capture the realities of the Civil War. By the mid-1800s, dioramas would evolve into small-scale replicas of a scene, and later larger-scale replicas in museum exhibitions. During the Civil War, women created dioramas that advanced the Union cause. They contributed to the war effort by organizing Sanitary Fairs where their dioramas and other crafts were sold to raise funds for hospitals and soldiers wounded in battle.

After analyzing a diorama made for a Union Sanitary Fair in the 1860s, students will choose a ​WAMS​ life story to study to learn about a woman who lived through the Civil War. Students will then create a diorama depicting a scene that captures the woman they studied taking action.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Elizabeth Keckley

Elizabeth Keckley was a self-emancipated woman, abolitionist, and accomplished dressmaker. When she moved from St. Louis to Washington, D.C. in 1860, she established her own business and cultivated a clientele of the wives of the political elite. Elizabeth was recommended to Mary Todd Lincoln, the new First Lady of the United States. The dresses Elizabeth made for the First Lady were praised for their modern look and exquisite detail, and incorporated the social expectations of women, rules of mourning, and Mary Todd’s role as a mother figure to the nation.

Elizabeth Keckley gained both her freedom and her renown through her talents as a dressmaker. Elizabeth’s dresses made important statements, both about herself as the dressmaker and about the person who wore her designs. After reading Elizabeth Keckley’s life story, students will imagine that they are fashion designers designing clothing for a modern social or political figure. They will create a fashion illustration that captures the beliefs of the woman whom they are “dressing.” They should keep in mind materials and styles that speak to the person’s identity and role as well as the mood of the nation. Students will draw their designs on a croqui and add color using watercolor pencils.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Source Notes

Antebellum

Salem Female Anti-Slavery Society

  • Congregational Library and Archives, History Matters, Salem Female Anti-Slavery Society, Collection History, http://www.congregationallibrary.org/nehh/series3/SFASS, accessed 5/26/2020.
  • Jones, Martha S., All Bound Up Together: The Woman Question in African American Public Culture 1830–1900 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2007).
  • Jones, Martha S., Birthright Citizens: A History of Race and Rights in Antebellum America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018).

Abolitionist Crafts

  • Jeffrey, Julie Roy. “Permeable Boundaries: Abolitionist Women and Separate Spheres.” Journal of the Early Republic 21, no. 1 (2001): 79–93, accessed 5/28/20. doi:10.2307/3125097.
  • Wallace-Sanders, Kimberly, Mammy: A Century of Race, Gender, and Southern Memory (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2009).
  • Lavender, Catherine. “Notes on The Cult of Domesticity and True Womanhood” (PDF). The College of Staten Island/City University of New York, retrieved 10/27/14.

Freedom Bonds

  • Jones, Martha S., Birthright Citizens: A History of Race and Rights in Antebellum America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018).
  • Jenkins, Ebony, Freedom Licenses in St. Louis City and County 1835–1865. Gateway Arch National Park. https://www.nps.gov/jeff/learn/historyculture/upload/Freedom%20License%20Report.pdf, accessed 5/28/2020.
  • Ramey Berry, Daina, and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Plantation Slavery

  • “Statistics on Slavery,” Weber University. https://faculty.weber.edu/kmackay/statistics_on_slavery.htm, accessed 5/29/20.
  • The slave account book of Charles Benedict Calvert of Prince George’s County, Maryland, ca. 1830–1860. University of Maryland Library Digital Collections, https://hdl.handle.net/1903.1/5750, accessed 5/29/20.
  • Ramey Berry, Daina and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Camp, Stephanie M.H., Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

Fighting Segregation

  • Volk, Kyle G. Moral Minorities and the Making of American Democracy. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).
  • Burrows, Edwin G., and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
  • New-York Historical Society, “Before Rosa Parks: Segregation on New York City Streetcars,” From the Stacks Blog, February 20, 2019, http://blog.nyhistory.org/before-rosa-parks-taking-on-new-yorks-segregated-street-cars/, accessed 5/28/2020.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  • “Harriet Beecher Stowe,” Digital Exhibits, UWM Libraries Special Collections, http://liblamp.uwm.edu/omeka/SPC2/exhibits/show/classictext/stowe, accessed 6/2/2020.
  • Washington, Margaret, “Religion, Reform, and Antislavery,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Pro- and Anti-Slavery Children’s Literature

  • Bakker, Jan. “Another Dilemma of an Intellectual in the Old South: Caroline Gilman, the Peculiar Institution, and Greater Rights for Women in the Rose Magazines.” The Southern Literary Journal 17, no. 1 (1984): 12–25, www.jstor.org/stable/20077747, accessed 6/1/20.
  • Townsend, Hannah, 1812–, “The Anti-Slavery Alphabet,” The News Media and the Making of America, 1730–1865, https://americanantiquarian.org/earlyamericannewsmedia/items/show/49, accessed 6/1/20.
  • Jones-Rogers, Stephanie E. They Were Her Property: White Women as Slave Owners in the American South (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2019).

Slavery and Indian Removal

  • Krauthamer, Barbara, Black Slaves, Indian Masters: White Women as Slave Owners in the American South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2013).
  • Letter from Molly Nail, February 20, 1832, and October 13, 1832. Senate Doc. 512, part 3, 23rd Cong,. 2nd sess., 210, 484.
  • Bradley R. Clampitt, ed., The Civil War and Reconstruction in Indian Territory (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2015).

Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

  • Jacobs, Harriet, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (West Berlin, NJ: The Townsend Press, 2004).
  • Washington, Margaret, “Religion, Reform, and Antislavery,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Ramey Berry, Daina, and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Resistance

  • Foner, Eric, Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad (New York: W.W. Norton, 2015).
  • Ramey Berry, Daina and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Rawick, George, ed., The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, series 2., vol. 5, Texas Narratives, Part 4, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1972).
  • Camp, Stephanie M.H., Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

Bleeding Kansas

  • “Lydia Maria Child,” The Poetry Foundation. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/lydia-maria-child, accessed 6/5/2020.
  • Earle, Jonathan, and Diane Mutti Burke, eds. Bleeding Kansas, Bleeding Missouri: The Long Civil War on the Border (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013).
  • Washington, Margaret, “Religion, Reform, and Antislavery,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Urban Slavery

  • Bellamy, Donnie D. “Macon, Georgia, 1823–1860: A Study in Urban Slavery.” Phylon (1960–) vol. 45, no. 4 (1984): 298–310, doi:10.2307/274910, accessed 8/6/20.
  • Gallati, Barbara Dayer, ed., Making American Taste: Narrative Art for a New Democracy (London: Giles, 2011).

 Life Story: Harriet Robinson Scott

  • The State Historical Society of Missouri, “Harriet Robinson Scott,” Historic Missourians, https://historicmissourians.shsmo.org/historicmissourians/name/s/scotth/, accessed 6/8/2020.
  • Corbett, Katharine T. In Her Place: A Guide to St. Louis Women’s History (St. Louis, MI: Missouri Historical Society Press, 1999).
  • Swain, Gwenyth. Dred and Harriet Scott: A Family’s Struggle for Freedom (St. Paul, MN: Borealis Books, 2004).
  • Ramey Berry, Daina and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Life Story: Letitia Carson

  • Greg Nokes, “Black Exclusion Laws in Oregon,” The Oregon Encyclopedia, https://oregonencyclopedia.org/articles/exclusion_laws/#.Xt6E39VKjIU, accessed 6/8/2020.
  • Teaching with Documents: Using Primary Sources from the National Archives. [Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1998], p. 31. And from Milestone Documents [Washington, DC: The National Archives and Records Administration, 1995] pp. 55–56
  • “Letitia Carson,” Black in Oregon 1840–1870, https://sos.oregon.gov/archives/exhibits/black-history/Pages/families/carson-letitia.aspx, accessed 6/8/2020.
  • “Adam ‘Andrew Jackson’ Carson,” Black in Oregon 1840–1870, https://sos.oregon.gov/archives/exhibits/black-history/Pages/families/carson-adam.aspx, accessed 6/8/2020.
  • William G. Robbins, “Oregon Donation Land Act,” The Oregon Encyclopedia, https://oregonencyclopedia.org/articles/oregon_donation_land_act/#.Xt6RldVKjIU, accessed 6/8/2020.

Life Story: Sarah Moore Grimké and Angelina Grimké Weld

  • Lerner, Gerda, The Grimké Sisters from South Carolina: Pioneers for Women’s Rights and Abolition (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004).
  • Berkin, Carol, Civil War Wives: The Lives and Times of Angelina Grimké Weld, Varina Howell Davis, and Julia Dent Grant (New York: Vintage Books, 2010).
  • Perry, Mark E., Lift Up Thy Voice: The Grimke Family’s Journey from Slaveholders to Civil Rights Leaders (New York: Viking Penguin, 2002).
  • Washington, Margaret, “Religion, Reform, and Antislavery,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Life Story: Sojourner Truth

  • Washington, Martha, Sojourner Truth’s America (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2009).
  • Washington, Martha, ed., Narrative of Sojourner Truth (New York: Vintage Books, 1993).
  • Washington, Margaret, “Religion, Reform, and Antislavery,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Ramey Berry, Daina and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Camp, Stephanie M.H., Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004)

Life Story: Anarcha, Betsy, Lucy

  • Cooper Owens, Deirdre, Medical Bondage: Race, Gender, and the Origins of American Gynecology (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2018).
  • Amos Doss, Harriet E., “The Enslaved Women Surgical Patients of J. Marion Sims in Antebellum Alabama,” Alabama Women: Their Lives and Times, Susan Youngblood Ashmore and Lisa Lindquist Dorr eds. (Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 2017).
  • Ramey Berry, Daina and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Civil War

Surviving the Siege of Atlanta

  • Bonds, Russell S., War Like the Thunderbolt: The Battle and Burning of Atlanta (Yardley, PA: Westholme Publishing, 2009).
  • Transcription, 1861 August 1 to 1866 January 26. The Atlanta History Center, https://aspace-atlantahistorycenter.galileo.usg.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/22087.
  • McCurry, Stephanie, Confederate Reckoning: Power and Politics in the Civil War South (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010).
  • McCurry, Stephanie, Women’s War: Fighting and Surviving the American Civil War (Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 2019).

Nursing

  • Culpepper, Marilyn Mayer, and Pauline Gordon Adams. “Nursing in the Civil War.” The American Journal of Nursing 88, no. 7 (1988): 981–84, doi:10.2307/3425867, accessed 6/29/20.
  • Panetta, Roger, and Eileen Panetta eds., On Shattered Ground: A Civil War Mosaic 1861–1865 (New York: Signet Classics, 2012).
  • Giesberg, Judith Ann, Civil War Sisterhood: The U.S. Sanitary Commission and Women’s Politics in Transition (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2000).

Sanitary Fairs

  • Giesberg, Judith Ann, Civil War Sisterhood: The U.S. Sanitary Commission and Women’s Politics in Transition (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2000).
  • Rosen, Hannah, “Women, the Civil War, and Reconstruction,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018)

Women’s War Production

  • Shaw, Madeline, and Lynne Zacek Bassett, Homefront and Battlefield: Quilts and Context in the Civil War (Lowell, MA: American Textile History Museum, 2012).
  • Giesberg, Judith Ann, “Waging War Their Own Way: Women and the Civil War in Pennsylvania.” Pennsylvania Legacies 13, no. 1-2 (2013): 16-27, accessed 6/30/20 doi:10.5215/pennlega.13.1-2.0016.
  • Giesberg, Judith Ann, Civil War Sisterhood: The U.S. Sanitary Commission and Women’s Politics in Transition (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2000).

Women Soldiers

  • Manion, Jen, “Transgender Representation, Identities, and Communities,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • “Frances Clayton,” American Battlefield Trust, https://www.battlefields.org/learn/biographies/frances-clayton, accessed 6/30/20.
  • “Albert Cashier,” American Battlefield Trust, https://www.battlefields.org/learn/biographies/albert-cashier, accessed 6/30/20.

Smuggling

  • McCurry, Stephanie, Women’s War: Fighting and Surviving the American Civil War (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2019).
  • McCurry, Stephanie, Confederate Reckoning: Power and Politics in the Civil War South (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010).
  • Glymph, Thavolia, The Women’s Fight: The Civil War’s Battles for Home, Freedom, and Nation (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2020)

Scenes from the Confederate Home Front

  • McCurry, Stephanie, Confederate Reckoning: Power and Politics in the Civil War South (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010).
  • “Confederate War Etchings, 1863,” New-York Historical Society, http://digitalcollections.nyhistory.org/islandora/object/islandora%3A31180#page/25/mode/1up, accessed 6/30/20.

Changing the Rules of War

  • McCurry, Stephanie, Women’s War: Fighting and Surviving the American Civil War (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2019).
  • Glymph, Thavolia, The Women’s Fight: The Civil War’s Battles for Home, Freedom, and Nation (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2020).

Civil War Political Cartoons

  • “Sowing and Reaping,” History Matters, http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6745/, accessed 7/1/2020.
  • Zweig, Caylie, “From Domesticity to Industry: Working Women in the Civil War,” From Slave Mothers & Southern Belles to Radical Reformers & Lost Cause Ladies: Representing Women in the Civil War Era, Tulane University Virtual Exhibition, https://civilwarwomen.wp.tulane.edu/essays-4/from-domesticity-to-industry-working-women-in-the-civil-war/, accessed 7/1/20.
  • Chesson, Michael B. “Harlots or Heroines? A New Look at the Richmond Bread Riot.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 92, no. 2 (1984): 131–75, www.jstor.org/stable/4248710, accessed 7/1/20.
  • Crisp Williams, Teresa, and David Williams. “‘The Women Rising’: Cotton, Class, and Confederate Georgia’s Rioting Women.” The Georgia Historical Quarterly 86, no. 1 (2002): 49–83, www.jstor.org/stable/40584640, accessed 7/1/20..
  • Titus, Katharine R., “The Richmond Bread Riot of 1863: Class, Race, and Gender in the Urban Confederacy,” The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era, Vol. 2, Article 6, https://cupola.gettysburg.edu/gcjcwe/vol2/iss1/6, accessed 7/1/20.

Cherokee Home Front

  • Clampitt, Bradley R., ed., The Civil War and Reconstruction in Indian Territory (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2015).
  • “Stand Watie,” American Battlefield Trust, https://www.battlefields.org/learn/biographies/stand-watie, accessed 7/2/20.

The Other Thirteenth Amendment

  • Stanley, Amy Dru, “Instead of Waiting for the Thirteenth Amendment: The War Power, Slave Marriage, and Inviolate Human Rights.” The American Historical Review 115, no. 3 (2010): 732–65. www.jstor.org/stable/23302945.
  • McCurry, Stephanie, Women’s War: Fighting and Surviving the American Civil War (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2019).

Life Story: Elizabeth Blackwell

  • Giesberg, Judith Ann, Civil War Sisterhood: The U.S. Sanitary Commission and Women’s Politics in Transition (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2000).
  • “Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell,” Changing the Face of Medicine, National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health, https://cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_35.html, accessed 7/2/20.

Life Story: Emily Jane Liles Harris

  • Racine, Philip N, ed., Piedmont Farmer: The Journals of David Golightly Harris, 1855–1870 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990).
  • Glymph, Thavolia, The Women’s Fight: The Civil War’s Battles for Home, Freedom, and Nation (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2020).
  • Mayer Culpepper, Marilyn, All Things Altered: Women in the Wake of Civil War and Reconstruction (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co, Inc., 2002).

Life Story: Loreta Janeta Velázquez

  • Rivas, Raquel González. “Gulf “alter-latinas:” Cross-dressing Women Travel Beyond the Gulfs of Transnationality and Transexuality.” The Southern Literary Journal 46, no. 2 (2014): 128–39, www.jstor.org/stable/24389062, accessed 7/7/20.
  • Alemán, Jesse. “Wars of Rebellion: US Hispanic Writers and Their American Civil Wars.” American Literary History 25, no. 1 (2013): 54–68, www.jstor.org/stable/23358470, accessed 7/7/20.
  • Velázquez, Loreta Janeta, The Woman in Battle: A Narrative of the Exploits, Adventures, and Travels of Madame Loreta Janeta Velázquez, Otherwise Known as Lieutenant Harry T. Buford, Confederate States Army (Richmond, VA: Dustin, Gilman and Co., 1876).

Life Story: Harriet Tubman

  • Chism, Kahlil. “Harriet Tubman: Spy, Veteran, and Widow.” OAH Magazine of History 19, no. 2 (2005): 47–51, www.jstor.org/stable/25163763, accessed 7/7/20.
  • Larson, Kate Clifford. “Harriet Ross Tubman: Timeline.” Meridians 12, no. 2 (2014): 9–27, doi:10.2979/meridians.12.2.9, accessed 7/7/20.
  • Hobson, Janell. “Harriet Tubman: A Legacy of Resistance.” Meridians 12, no. 2 (2014): 1–8, doi:10.2979/meridians.12.2.1, accessed 7/7/20.
  • Camp, Stephanie M.H., Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004).
  • Sernett, Milton C., Harriet Tubman: Myth, Memory, and History (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007).

Life Story: Louisa Smith

  • Glymph, Thavolia, The Women’s Fight: The Civil War’s Battles for Home, Freedom, and Nation (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2020).
  • McCurry, Stephanie, Women’s War: Fighting and Surviving the American Civil War (Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 2019).
  • Downs, Jim, Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering During the Civil War and Reconstruction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
  • Camp, Stephanie M.H., Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

Life Story: Mary Todd Lincoln

  • Baker, Jean H. “Mary Todd Lincoln: Managing Home, Husband, and Children.” Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 11 (1990): 1–12, www.jstor.org/stable/20148867, accessed 7/8/20.
  • Ross, Rodney A. “Mary Todd Lincoln, Patient at Bellevue Place, Batavia.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (1908–1984) 63, no. 1 (1970): 5–34, www.jstor.org/stable/40190601, accessed 7/8/20.
  • Bach, Jennifer L. “Acts of Remembrance: Mary Todd Lincoln and Her Husband’s Memory.” Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 25, no. 2 (2004): 25–49, www.jstor.org/stable/20149062, accessed 7/8/20.
  • Baker, Jean H. “Mary Todd Lincoln: Biography as Social History.” The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 86, no. 3 (1988): 203–15, www.jstor.org/stable/23380786, accessed 7/8/20.
  • Pratt McDermott, Stacy, Mary Lincoln: Southern Girl, Northern Woman (New York: Routledge, 2015).

Reconstruction

Laundry Workers: Tools of the Trade

  • Hunter, Tera W., To ‘Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors After the Civil War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997)
  • Manring, Maurice M. “Aunt Jemima Explained: The Old South, the Absent Mistress, and the Slave in a Box.” Southern Cultures 2, no. 1 (1995): 19–44, www.jstor.org/stable/26235388, accessed 7/24/20.
  • Wilkinson, Doris Yvonne. “Racial Socialization Through Children’s Toys: A Sociohistorical Examination.” Journal of Black Studies 5, no. 1 (1974): 96–109, www.jstor.org/stable/2783625, accessed 7/24/20.
  • Koman, Rita G. “Servitude to Service: African-American Women as Wage Earners.” OAH Magazine of History 11, no. 2 (1997): 42–49, www.jstor.org/stable/25163136, accessed 7/24/20.

Luckie Family Portraits

  • Gates, Jr., Henry Louis, “Free Blacks Lived in the North, Right?” PBS.org, https://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/free-blacks-lived-in-the-north-right/, accessed 8/21/20.
  • “Luckie Family Photographs,” Kenan Research Center Finding Aids, Atlanta History Center, https://aspace-atlantahistorycenter.galileo.usg.edu/repositories/2/resources/2444, accessed 8/21/20.

“All Bound Up Together”

  • Exhibition text for Women March, New-York Historical Society, 2020.
  • Boyd, Melba Joyce, Discarded Legacy: Politics and Poetics in the Life of Frances E. W. Harper, 1825–1911 (Wayne State University Press, 1995).
  • Field, Corinne T., “Frances E. W. Harper and the Politics of Intellectual Maturity,” Toward An Intellectual History of Black Women, Mia Bay, Farah J. Griffin, Martha S. Jones, and Barbara D. Savage, eds. (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2015).

Swearing Loyalty

  • Clapper, Michael. “Reconstructing a Family: John Rogers’s Taking the Oath and Drawing Rations.” Winterthur Portfolio 39, no. 4 (2004): 259–78, doi:10.1086/497849, accessed 7/28/20.
  • Mayer Culpepper, Marilyn, All Things Altered: Women in the Wake of Civil War and Reconstruction (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co, Inc., 2002).
  • McCurry, Stephanie, Women’s War: Fighting to Survive the American Civil War (Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 2019).
  • Glymph, Thavolia, The Women’s Fight The Civil War’s Battles for Home, Freedom, and Nation (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2020).

Information Wanted

  • Last Seen: Finding Family After Slavery, https://informationwanted.org/, accessed 7/30/20
  • Shapiro, Ari, and Maureen Pao, “After Slavery, Searching for Loved Ones in Wanted Ads,” NPR.org, https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2017/02/22/516651689/after-slavery-searching-for-loved-ones-in-wanted-ads, accessed 7/30/20.
  • New-York Historical Society, Black Citizenship in the Age of Jim Crow, 2019, https://www.nyhistory.org/sites/default/files/newfiles/Black%20Citizenship%20in%20the%20Age%20of%20Jim%20Crow%20Curriculum.pdf, accessed 7/30/20.

Backlash Against Black Workers

  • Hunter, Tera W., To ‘Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors After the Civil War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997).
  • Jones, Jacqueline, and James Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and the Family, from Slavery to Present (New York: Basic Books, 2010).

Calling Out Sexual Violence

  • Hunter, Tera W., To ‘Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors After the Civil War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997).
  • Turner, Henry McNeal, Celebration of the First Anniversary of Freedom. The Henry McNeal Turner Project ( January 1, 1866). http://www.thehenrymcnealturnerproject.org/2019/03/synopsis-on-january-1st-1866-henry.html.

Claiming Political Power

  • Hunter, Tera W., To ‘Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors After the Civil War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997)
  • New-York Historical Society, Black Citizenship in the Age of Jim Crow Curriculum Guide, 2019, https://www.nyhistory.org/sites/default/files/newfiles/Black%20Citizenship%20in%20the%20Age%20of%20Jim%20Crow%20Curriculum.pdf, accessed 8/3/20.
  • History.com, “Black Leaders During Reconstruction,” 21 August 2018, https://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/black-leaders-during-reconstruction, accessed 8/5/2020.
  • Jones, Martha S., All Bound Up Together: The Woman Question in African American Public Culture 1830–1900 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2007).

Mourning Clothing

  • Faust, Drew Gilpin, This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War (New York: Vintage Books, 2008).
  • Hacker, J. David. “A Census-Based Count of the Civil War Dead.” Civil War History 57, no. 4 (2011): 307-348. doi:10.1353/cwh.2011.0061.
  • Marshall, Nicholas. “The Great Exaggeration: Death and the Civil War.” Journal of the Civil War Era 4, no. 1 (2014): 3–27, www.jstor.org/stable/26062122, accessed 8/5/20.
  • Costume Institute, “Death Becomes Her: A Century of Mourning Attire: Gallery Text and Labels,” Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2014, Thomas J. Watson Library Digital Collections, https://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p16028coll1/id/25197, accessed 8/5/20.

New York Exchange for Women’s Work

  • Dickinson, Ellen E. “New York Exchange for Women’s Work.” The Art Amateur 1, no. 2 (1879): 35, www.jstor.org/stable/25626812, accessed 8/6/20.
  • Hernandez, Daisy, “A Genteel Nostalgia, Going Out of Business,” The New York Times, 23 Feb 2003. https://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/nyregion/a-genteel-nostalgia-going-out-of-business.html#:~:text=Given%20its%20famous%20founders%20and,Exchange%20Movement%2C%201832%2D1900., accessed 8/6/20.
  • Faust, Drew Gilpin, This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War (New York: Vintage Books, 2008).

Laundry Workers’ Strike

  • Hunter, Tera W., To ‘Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors After the Civil War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997).
  • Jones, Jacqueline, and James Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and the Family, from Slavery to Present (New York: Basic Books, 2010).

Life Story: Matilda Hughes

  • Ramey Berry, Daina, and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Rosen, Hannah, “Women, the Civil War, and Reconstruction,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Hughes, Louis, Thirty Years a Slave (Milwaukee: South Side Printing Company, 1897).
  • Camp, Stephanie M.H., Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

Life Story: Susie Baker King Taylor

  • Taylor, Susie King, Reminiscences of My Life in Camp: With the 33d United States Colored Troops Late 1st S. C. Volunteers (Boston: Published by the Author, 1902).
  • Rosen, Hannah, “Women, the Civil War, and Reconstruction,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • “Susie Taylor,” American Battlefield Trust, https://www.battlefields.org/learn/biographies/susie-taylor, accessed 8/19/20.
  • Camp, Stephanie M.H., Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

Life Story: Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas

  • McCurry, Stephanie, Women’s War: Fighting to Survive the American Civil War (Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 2019).
  • Rohrer, Katherine E., “Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas,” New Georgia Encyclopedia, 10/9/2014, georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/ella-gertrude-clanton-thomas-1834-1907, accessed 8/20/20.
  • Burr, Virginia Ingraham, ed., The Secret Eye: The Journal of Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas, 1848–1889 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, 1990).

Life Story: Elizabeth Keckley

  • Keckley, Elizabeth. Behind the Scenes, Or, Thirty Years a Slave, and Four Years in the White House (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011), http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5149/9780807869642_keckley, accessed 8/26/20.
  • Washington, John E., They Knew Lincoln (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Camp, Stephanie M.H., Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

Suggested Readings

Books and Articles

  • Bradley R. Clampitt, ed. The Civil War and Reconstruction in Indian Territory (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2015).
  • Camp, Stephanie M.H., Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004).
  • Cooper Owens, Deirdre, Medical Bondage: Race, Gender, and the Origins of American Gynecology (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2018).
  • Foner, Eric, Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad (New York: W.W. Norton, 2015).
  • Giesberg, Judith Ann, Civil War Sisterhood: The U.S. Sanitary Commission and Women’s Politics in Transition (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2000).
  • Glymph, Thavolia, The Women’s Fight: The Civil War’s Battles for Home, Freedom, and Nation (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2020).
  • Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (West Berlin, NJ: The Townsend Press, 2004).
  • Hunter, Tera W., To ‘Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors After the Civil War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997).
  • Jones, Martha S., All Bound Up Together: The Woman Question in African American Public Culture 1830–1900 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007).
  • Jones, Martha S., Birthright Citizens: A History of Race and Rights in Antebellum America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018).
  • Jones-Rogers, Stephanie E. They Were Her Property: White Women as Slave Owners in the American South (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2019).
  • Keckley, Elizabeth. Behind the Scenes, Or, Thirty Years a Slave, and Four Years in the White House (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2011), accessed 8/26/20. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5149/9780807869642_keckley.
  • Krauthamer, Barbara, Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2013).
  • Manion, Jen, “Transgender Representation, Identities, and Communities,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Mayer Culpepper, Marilyn, All Things Altered: Women in the Wake of Civil War and Reconstruction (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co, Inc., 2002).
  • McCurry, Stephanie, Confederate Reckoning: Power and Politics in the Civil War South (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010).
  • McCurry, Stephanie, Women’s War: Fighting and Surviving the American Civil War (Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 2019).
  • Ramey Berry, Daina, and Nakia D. Parker, “Women and Slavery in the Nineteenth Century,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Rosen, Hannah, “Women, the Civil War, and Reconstruction,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Sernett, Milton C., Harriet Tubman: Myth, Memory, and History (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007).
  • Taylor, Susie King, Reminiscences of My Life in Camp: With the 33d United States Colored Troops Late 1st S. C. Volunteers (Boston: Published by the Author, 1902).
  • Washington, Margaret, “Religion, Reform, and Antislavery,” The Oxford Handbook of American Women’s and Gender History, ed. Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor and Lisa G. Materson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • Washington, Martha, Sojourner Truth’s America (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2009).

Websites

  • “Last Seen: Finding Family After Slavery,” https://informationwanted.org/.