1692 – 1783 Settler Colonialism and the Revolution Supplemental Materials

Art Activities

Quapaw Masterpiece

Considered to be masterpieces of Native art, painted buffalo hides created by Quapaw women in the 18th century functioned as both wearable and decorative pieces. Tanned, stretched, and painted by Quapaw artists, the hides were renowned throughout the Louisiana colony. Their narrative quality and the symbolism of the painted imagery told stories of battles, treaties, celebrations, and religious ceremonies. In the past, these artists would have used a bone or wood stylus to paint these hides with natural mineral and vegetable pigments, made from things such as swelling cottonwood buds or burnt yellow clay. The hides also gave historians insight into the Quapaw’s interactions with French colonists and other Native tribes.

In this activity, students consider how Quapaw women used these works of art to tell a story. Students begin by analyzing “the three villages” robe and discussing how the Quapaw artists used symbols to depict each element in the scene. They then consider how these symbols came together to tell a story. Finally, students use fabric paint to create either a wearable or decorative piece that uses their own symbols to tell a story about their community.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

A Colonial Woman who became an American Legend

Information about individuals who lived long ago can change depending on who is telling their story and for what purpose. For some, the written and visual records are limited and it becomes difficult to paint a complete picture of their lives. Others’ lives inspire fictional characters, or myths about their experiences become the popular narrative. Artist depictions of historical figures can also heavily influence the way that they are remembered. Nancy Morgan Hart, a woman who lived on the colonial frontier during the American Revolution, is one such figure whose story has been consistently altered and retold by artists, journalists, writers, and historians.

In this activity, students consider how women of the colonial period and the Revolutionary era have been remembered through art and storytelling by analyzing portraits. Then, students create a portrait of Nancy Morgan Hart that takes her life story into account, providing a more historically accurate representation of the life and experiences of a woman living on the colonial frontier during the American Revolution.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Source Notes

Settler Colonialism

  • Alan Taylor and Eric Foner. American Colonies: The Settling of North America. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
  • Anderson, Fred. The War that Made America. New York: Penguin, 2006.
  • Basil Dmytryshyn, E.A.P. Crownhart-Vaughan, and Thomas Vaughan, The Russian American Colonies, 1798-1867: A Documentary Record. Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1989.
  • Berkin, Carol. First Generations: Women in Colonial America. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.
  • DuVal, Kathleen. The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
  • Hanger, Kimberly S. Bounded Lives, Bounded Places. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997.
  • Landers, Jane. Black Society in Spanish Florida. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999.
  • O’Malley, Gregory E. Final Passages: The Intercolonial Slave Trade of British America, 1619-1807. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • Sleeper-Smith, Susan. Indian Women and French Men. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England, 1650-1750. New York: Random House, 1991.
  • Weber, David J. The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.
  • Wood, Betty. Slavery in Colonial America, 1619-1776. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

Selling Staten Island

  • Lipman, Andrew. “A Hard Bargain.” Slate.com, April 25, 2015, accessed March 24, 2017, http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/history/2015/04/staten_island_for_sale_the_munsee_indians_sold_staten_island_under_duress.html
  • Lipman, Andrew. Saltwater Frontier. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015.

Ornaments of the Daughters of Zion

  • Barker, Kathleen. “Protestant Women”, Women in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection, Volume 1, Lamphier, Peg A., and Rosanne Welch, eds. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2017: pp. 158-159.
  • Barker-Benfield, Ben. “Anne Hutchinson and the Puritan Attitude toward Women.” Feminist Studies 1, no. 2 (1972): 65-96. doi:10.2307/3177641.
  • Robinson, David M. “The Cultural Dynamics of American Puritanism.” American Literary History 6, no. 4 (1994): 738-55. http://www.jstor.org/stable/489963
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England 1650-1750. New York: Random House, 1991.

Professional Portraitist

  • Mishru, Patit Paban. “Henrietta Johnston”, Women in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection, Volume 1, Lamphier, Peg A., and Rosanne Welch, eds. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2017: pp. 145-146.
  • “Mrs. Pierre Bacot (Marianne Fleur Du Gue), ca. 1708–10,” Metmuseum.org, accessed 7/23/19 https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11271?&searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&who=Johnston%2c+Henrietta%24Henrietta+Johnston&ft=*&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=2

Children at Work

  • Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Middleton, Simon. From Privileges to Rights: Work and Politics in Colonial New York City. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
  • Mintz, Steven. Huck’s Raft: A History of American Childhood. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Quapaw Masterpiece

  • Arnold, Morris S. “Eighteenth-Century Arkansas Illustrated.” The Arkansas Historical Quarterly, vol. 53, no. 2, 1994, pp. 119–136. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40038232.
  • DuVal, Kathleen. The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
  • Plagens, Peter. “When beauty meets utility.” The Wall Street Journal. March 27, 2015. https://www.wsj.com/articles/when-beauty-meets-utility-on-three-villages-robe-c-1740-by-an-unknown-member-of-the-quapaw-tribe-1427491950

Eighteenth Century Education

  • Dunn, Mary Maples. “Saints and Sisters: Congregational and Quaker Women in the Early Colonial Period.” American Quarterly 30, no. 5 (1978): 582-601. doi:10.2307/2712399.
  • Guy Aiken, “Quakers”, Women in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection, Volume 1, Lamphier, Peg A., and Rosanne Welch, eds. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2017: pp. 158-159.
  • Moore, Milcah Martha. Miscellanies, moral and instructive, in prose and verse, collected from various authors, for the use of schools, and improvement of young persons of both sexes. Philadelphia: Joseph James, 1787.

Conditional Manumission Laws

  • Dunbar, Erica Armstrong. A Fragile Freedom: African American Women and Emancipation in the Antebellum City. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008. 13–14.
  • Joliffe, William. Historical, genealogical, and biographical account of the Jolliffe family of Virginia, 1652 to 1893 : also sketches of the Neill’s, Janney’s, Hollingsworth’s, and other cognate families. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1893.
    https://archive.org/stream/historicalgeneal00joll/historicalgeneal00joll_djvu.txt
  • Rowe, Linda. “After 1723, Manumission Takes Careful Planning and Plenty of Savvy,” 2004, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, https://www.history.org/history/teaching/enewsletter/volume3/february05/manumission.cfm, accessed 7/24/2019.
  • Wilson, Theodore Brantner. The Black Codes of the South. University: University of Alabama Press, 1965.

The Business of Slavery

  • O’Malley, Gregory E. Final Passages: The Intercolonial Slave Trade of British America, 1619-1807. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press: 2014.
  • Rabinowitz, Richard. “Eavesdropping at the Well: Interpretive Media in the Slavery in New York Exhibition,” The Public Historian, Vol. 35, No. 3 (August 2013). http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/tph.2013.35.3.8
  • “Voyage 24944, Rhode Island (1749),” Voyages, The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, accessed March 27, 2017, http://www.slavevoyages.org/voyage/24944/variables.

Frontier Diplomacy

  • Anderson, Fred. The War that Made America. New York: Penguin, 2006.
  • Jonathan A. Burns, George John Drobnock, and Jared M. Smith. “Croghan at Aughwick: History, Maps, and Archaeology Collide in the Search for Fort Shirley.” Paper Presented Pioneer America Society, October 2008.
  • National Park Service, “Fort Necessity: Story of Queen Aliquippa,” January 2009, https://www.nps.gov/fone/learn/historyculture/upload/FONE%20Alliquippa%20SiteB_NBl_pc-header.pdf, accessed July 30, 2019.

The Casket Girls

  • Alan Taylor and Eric Foner. American Colonies: The Settling of North America. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
  • Virginia Gould, “Bienville’s Brides: Virgins or Prostitutes? 1719-1721.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, vol. 59, no. 4, 2018, pp. 389–408. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/26564828.

Woman of Business

  • “Mary Spratt Provoost Alexander,” American National Biography Online, accessed January 18, 2017, http://www.anb.org/articles/01/01-01089. html?a=1&n=mary%20alexander& d=10&ss=0&q=1
  • Matson, Cathy. Merchants and Empire: Trading in Colonial New York. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1987.

Runaway Slaves

  • Graham Russell Hodges and Alan Edward Brown, “Pretends to be Free”: Runaway Slave Advertisements from Colonial and Revolutionary New York and New Jersey. New York: Garland, 1994.
  • West, Emily. Enslaved Women in America From Colonial Times to Emancipation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015.
  • Wood, Betty. Slavery in Colonial America, 1619-1776. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

The Rapalje Children

  • Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • “Garret Rapalje (b. 1730),” New-York Historical Society, accessed March 27, 2017, http://www.nyhistory.org/exhibit/garret-rapalje-b-1730; “The Rapalje Children,” New-York Historical Society, accessed March 27, 2017, http://www.nyhistory.org/exhibit/rapalje-children
  • “John Durand,” American National Biography Online, accessed January 18, 2017, http://www.anb.org/articles/17/17-01601.html?a=1&f=%22rapalje%22&d=10&ss=1&q=2

Symbols of Accomplishment

  • Berkin, Carol. First Generations: Women in Colonial America. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England 1650-1750. New York: Vintage Books, 1980.
  • New-York Historical Society accession notes.

Purity of Blood Trials

  • Alan Taylor and Eric Foner. American Colonies: The Settling of North America. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
  • Frederick, Julia C. “A Blood Test before Marriage: ‘Limpieza De Sangre’ in Spanish Louisiana.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, vol. 43, no. 1, 2002, pp. 75–85. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4233813.
  • Gould, Virginia Meacham. “A Chaos of Iniquity and Discord: Slave and Free Women of Color in the Spanish Ports of New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola.” The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South, ed. Catharine Clinton and Michele Gillespie. New York: Oxford, 1997.
  • Hanger, Kimberly S. Bounded Lives, Bounded Places. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997.

Fashionable Rebellion

  • Everett, Donald E. “Free Persons of Color in Colonial Louisiana.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, vol. 7, no. 1, 1966, pp. 21–50. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4230881.
  • Gould, Virginia Meacham. “A Chaos of Iniquity and Discord: Slave and Free Women of Color in the Spanish Ports of New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola.” The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South, ed. Catharine Clinton and Michele Gillespie. New York: Oxford, 1997.
  • Hanger, Kimberly S. Bounded Lives, Bounded Places. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997.
  • R. C. V., “Portrait of Betsy,” From Slave Mothers & Southern Belles to Radical Reformers & Lost Cause Ladies, Representing Women in the Civil War Era, Tulane University, 2019, https://civilwarwomen.wp.tulane.edu/essays-3/portrait-of-betsy/, accessed 8/6/19.

Life in the Mission System

  • Reyes, Bárbara O. Private Women, Public Lives: Gender and the Missions of the Californias. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.
  • Weber, David J. The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

Settling Russian Alaska

  • Basil Dmytryshyn, E.A.P. Crownhart-Vaughan, and Thomas Vaughan, eds. Russian Penetration of the North Pacific Ocean, 1700-1797. Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1988.
  • Grinëv, Andrei V. “The First Russian Settlers in Alaska.” The Historian 75, no. 3 (2013): 443-74. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24456115.

Life Story: Margrieta van Varick

  • Piwonka, Ruth. “Margrieta van Varick in the West: Inventory of a Life,” Dutch New York Between East and West: The World of Margrieta van Varick, ed. Deborah L. Krohn and Peter N. Miller. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.
  • Voorhees, David William. “Flatbush in the Time of the van Varicks,” Dutch New York Between East and West: The World of Margrieta van Varick, ed. Deborah L. Krohn and Peter N. Miller. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.
  • Voorhees, David William.  “Margrieta van Varick in the East: Traces of a Life,” Dutch New York Between East and West: The World of Margrieta van Varick, ed. Deborah L. Krohn and Peter N. Miller. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Life Story: Sarah

  • Bond, Richard E. “Shaping a Conspiracy: Black Testimony in the 1741 New York Plot.” Early American Studies 5, no. 1 (2007): 63-94. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23546545.
  • Doolen, Andy. “Reading and Writing Terror: The New York Conspiracy Trials of 1741.” American Literary History 16, no. 3 (2004): 377-406. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3568057
  • Horsmanden, Daniel. The New-York conspiracy, or, A history of the Negro plot : with the journal of the proceedings against the conspirators at New-York in the years 1741-2 : together with several interesting tables, containing the names of the white and black persons arrested on account of the conspiracy–the times of their trials–their sentences–their executions by burning and hangings–names of those transported, and those discharged : with a variety of other useful and highly interesting matter. New York: Southwick and Pelsue, 1810.
  • Plaag, Eric W. “New York’s 1741 Slave Conspiracy in a Climate of Fear and Anxiety.” New York History 84, no. 3 (2003): 275-99. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23183369
  • Szasz, Ferenc M. “The New York Slave Revolt of 1741: A Re-Examination.” New York History 48, no. 3 (1967): 215-30. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23162951

Life Story: McLennan’s Female Slave

  • Jensen, Joan M. Loosening the Bonds: Mid-Atlantic Far