1692 – 1783 Settler Colonialism and the Revolution Supplemental Materials

Art Activities

Quapaw Masterpiece

Considered to be masterpieces of Native art, painted buffalo hides created by Quapaw women in the 18th century functioned as both wearable and decorative pieces. Tanned, stretched, and painted by Quapaw artists, the hides were renowned throughout the Louisiana colony. Their narrative quality and the symbolism of the painted imagery told stories of battles, treaties, celebrations, and religious ceremonies. In the past, these artists would have used a bone or wood stylus to paint these hides with natural mineral and vegetable pigments, made from things such as swelling cottonwood buds or burnt yellow clay. The hides also gave historians insight into the Quapaw’s interactions with French colonists and other Native tribes.

In this activity, students consider how Quapaw women used these works of art to tell a story. Students begin by analyzing “the three villages” robe and discussing how the Quapaw artists used symbols to depict each element in the scene. They then consider how these symbols came together to tell a story. Finally, students use fabric paint to create either a wearable or decorative piece that uses their own symbols to tell a story about their community.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

A Colonial Woman who became an American Legend

Information about individuals who lived long ago can change depending on who is telling their story and for what purpose. For some, the written and visual records are limited and it becomes difficult to paint a complete picture of their lives. Others’ lives inspire fictional characters, or myths about their experiences become the popular narrative. Artist depictions of historical figures can also heavily influence the way that they are remembered. Nancy Morgan Hart, a woman who lived on the colonial frontier during the American Revolution, is one such figure whose story has been consistently altered and retold by artists, journalists, writers, and historians.

In this activity, students consider how women of the colonial period and the Revolutionary era have been remembered through art and storytelling by analyzing portraits. Then, students create a portrait of Nancy Morgan Hart that takes her life story into account, providing a more historically accurate representation of the life and experiences of a woman living on the colonial frontier during the American Revolution.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Source Notes

Settler Colonialism

  • Alan Taylor and Eric Foner. American Colonies: The Settling of North America. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
  • Anderson, Fred. The War that Made America. New York: Penguin, 2006.
  • Basil Dmytryshyn, E.A.P. Crownhart-Vaughan, and Thomas Vaughan, The Russian American Colonies, 1798-1867: A Documentary Record. Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1989.
  • Berkin, Carol. First Generations: Women in Colonial America. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.
  • DuVal, Kathleen. The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
  • Hanger, Kimberly S. Bounded Lives, Bounded Places. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997.
  • Landers, Jane. Black Society in Spanish Florida. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999.
  • O’Malley, Gregory E. Final Passages: The Intercolonial Slave Trade of British America, 1619-1807. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • Sleeper-Smith, Susan. Indian Women and French Men. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England, 1650-1750. New York: Random House, 1991.
  • Weber, David J. The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.
  • Wood, Betty. Slavery in Colonial America, 1619-1776. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

Selling Staten Island

  • Lipman, Andrew. “A Hard Bargain.” Slate.com, April 25, 2015, accessed March 24, 2017, http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/history/2015/04/staten_island_for_sale_the_munsee_indians_sold_staten_island_under_duress.html
  • Lipman, Andrew. Saltwater Frontier. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015.

Ornaments of the Daughters of Zion

  • Barker, Kathleen. “Protestant Women”, Women in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection, Volume 1, Lamphier, Peg A., and Rosanne Welch, eds. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2017: pp. 158-159.
  • Barker-Benfield, Ben. “Anne Hutchinson and the Puritan Attitude toward Women.” Feminist Studies 1, no. 2 (1972): 65-96. doi:10.2307/3177641.
  • Robinson, David M. “The Cultural Dynamics of American Puritanism.” American Literary History 6, no. 4 (1994): 738-55. http://www.jstor.org/stable/489963
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England 1650-1750. New York: Random House, 1991.

Professional Portraitist

  • Mishru, Patit Paban. “Henrietta Johnston”, Women in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection, Volume 1, Lamphier, Peg A., and Rosanne Welch, eds. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2017: pp. 145-146.
  • “Mrs. Pierre Bacot (Marianne Fleur Du Gue), ca. 1708–10,” Metmuseum.org, accessed 7/23/19 https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11271?&searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&who=Johnston%2c+Henrietta%24Henrietta+Johnston&ft=*&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=2

Children at Work

  • Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Middleton, Simon. From Privileges to Rights: Work and Politics in Colonial New York City. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
  • Mintz, Steven. Huck’s Raft: A History of American Childhood. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Quapaw Masterpiece

  • Arnold, Morris S. “Eighteenth-Century Arkansas Illustrated.” The Arkansas Historical Quarterly, vol. 53, no. 2, 1994, pp. 119–136. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40038232.
  • DuVal, Kathleen. The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
  • Plagens, Peter. “When beauty meets utility.” The Wall Street Journal. March 27, 2015. https://www.wsj.com/articles/when-beauty-meets-utility-on-three-villages-robe-c-1740-by-an-unknown-member-of-the-quapaw-tribe-1427491950

Eighteenth Century Education

  • Dunn, Mary Maples. “Saints and Sisters: Congregational and Quaker Women in the Early Colonial Period.” American Quarterly 30, no. 5 (1978): 582-601. doi:10.2307/2712399.
  • Guy Aiken, “Quakers”, Women in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection, Volume 1, Lamphier, Peg A., and Rosanne Welch, eds. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2017: pp. 158-159.
  • Moore, Milcah Martha. Miscellanies, moral and instructive, in prose and verse, collected from various authors, for the use of schools, and improvement of young persons of both sexes. Philadelphia: Joseph James, 1787.

Conditional Manumission Laws

  • Dunbar, Erica Armstrong. A Fragile Freedom: African American Women and Emancipation in the Antebellum City. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008. 13–14.
  • Joliffe, William. Historical, genealogical, and biographical account of the Jolliffe family of Virginia, 1652 to 1893 : also sketches of the Neill’s, Janney’s, Hollingsworth’s, and other cognate families. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1893.
    https://archive.org/stream/historicalgeneal00joll/historicalgeneal00joll_djvu.txt
  • Rowe, Linda. “After 1723, Manumission Takes Careful Planning and Plenty of Savvy,” 2004, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, https://www.history.org/history/teaching/enewsletter/volume3/february05/manumission.cfm, accessed 7/24/2019.
  • Wilson, Theodore Brantner. The Black Codes of the South. University: University of Alabama Press, 1965.

The Business of Slavery

  • O’Malley, Gregory E. Final Passages: The Intercolonial Slave Trade of British America, 1619-1807. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press: 2014.
  • Rabinowitz, Richard. “Eavesdropping at the Well: Interpretive Media in the Slavery in New York Exhibition,” The Public Historian, Vol. 35, No. 3 (August 2013). http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/tph.2013.35.3.8
  • “Voyage 24944, Rhode Island (1749),” Voyages, The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, accessed March 27, 2017, http://www.slavevoyages.org/voyage/24944/variables.

Frontier Diplomacy

  • Anderson, Fred. The War that Made America. New York: Penguin, 2006.
  • Jonathan A. Burns, George John Drobnock, and Jared M. Smith. “Croghan at Aughwick: History, Maps, and Archaeology Collide in the Search for Fort Shirley.” Paper Presented Pioneer America Society, October 2008.
  • National Park Service, “Fort Necessity: Story of Queen Aliquippa,” January 2009, https://www.nps.gov/fone/learn/historyculture/upload/FONE%20Alliquippa%20SiteB_NBl_pc-header.pdf, accessed July 30, 2019.

The Casket Girls

  • Alan Taylor and Eric Foner. American Colonies: The Settling of North America. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
  • Virginia Gould, “Bienville’s Brides: Virgins or Prostitutes? 1719-1721.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, vol. 59, no. 4, 2018, pp. 389–408. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/26564828.

Woman of Business

  • “Mary Spratt Provoost Alexander,” American National Biography Online, accessed January 18, 2017, http://www.anb.org/articles/01/01-01089. html?a=1&n=mary%20alexander& d=10&ss=0&q=1
  • Matson, Cathy. Merchants and Empire: Trading in Colonial New York. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1987.

Runaway Slaves

  • Graham Russell Hodges and Alan Edward Brown, “Pretends to be Free”: Runaway Slave Advertisements from Colonial and Revolutionary New York and New Jersey. New York: Garland, 1994.
  • West, Emily. Enslaved Women in America From Colonial Times to Emancipation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015.
  • Wood, Betty. Slavery in Colonial America, 1619-1776. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

The Rapalje Children

  • Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • “Garret Rapalje (b. 1730),” New-York Historical Society, accessed March 27, 2017, http://www.nyhistory.org/exhibit/garret-rapalje-b-1730; “The Rapalje Children,” New-York Historical Society, accessed March 27, 2017, http://www.nyhistory.org/exhibit/rapalje-children
  • “John Durand,” American National Biography Online, accessed January 18, 2017, http://www.anb.org/articles/17/17-01601.html?a=1&f=%22rapalje%22&d=10&ss=1&q=2

Symbols of Accomplishment

  • Berkin, Carol. First Generations: Women in Colonial America. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England 1650-1750. New York: Vintage Books, 1980.
  • New-York Historical Society accession notes.

Purity of Blood Trials

  • Alan Taylor and Eric Foner. American Colonies: The Settling of North America. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
  • Frederick, Julia C. “A Blood Test before Marriage: ‘Limpieza De Sangre’ in Spanish Louisiana.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, vol. 43, no. 1, 2002, pp. 75–85. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4233813.
  • Gould, Virginia Meacham. “A Chaos of Iniquity and Discord: Slave and Free Women of Color in the Spanish Ports of New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola.” The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South, ed. Catharine Clinton and Michele Gillespie. New York: Oxford, 1997.
  • Hanger, Kimberly S. Bounded Lives, Bounded Places. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997.

Fashionable Rebellion

  • Everett, Donald E. “Free Persons of Color in Colonial Louisiana.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, vol. 7, no. 1, 1966, pp. 21–50. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4230881.
  • Gould, Virginia Meacham. “A Chaos of Iniquity and Discord: Slave and Free Women of Color in the Spanish Ports of New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola.” The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South, ed. Catharine Clinton and Michele Gillespie. New York: Oxford, 1997.
  • Hanger, Kimberly S. Bounded Lives, Bounded Places. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997.
  • R. C. V., “Portrait of Betsy,” From Slave Mothers & Southern Belles to Radical Reformers & Lost Cause Ladies, Representing Women in the Civil War Era, Tulane University, 2019, https://civilwarwomen.wp.tulane.edu/essays-3/portrait-of-betsy/, accessed 8/6/19.

Life in the Mission System

  • Reyes, Bárbara O. Private Women, Public Lives: Gender and the Missions of the Californias. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.
  • Weber, David J. The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

Settling Russian Alaska

  • Basil Dmytryshyn, E.A.P. Crownhart-Vaughan, and Thomas Vaughan, eds. Russian Penetration of the North Pacific Ocean, 1700-1797. Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1988.
  • Grinëv, Andrei V. “The First Russian Settlers in Alaska.” The Historian 75, no. 3 (2013): 443-74. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24456115.

Life Story: Margrieta van Varick

  • Piwonka, Ruth. “Margrieta van Varick in the West: Inventory of a Life,” Dutch New York Between East and West: The World of Margrieta van Varick, ed. Deborah L. Krohn and Peter N. Miller. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.
  • Voorhees, David William. “Flatbush in the Time of the van Varicks,” Dutch New York Between East and West: The World of Margrieta van Varick, ed. Deborah L. Krohn and Peter N. Miller. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.
  • Voorhees, David William.  “Margrieta van Varick in the East: Traces of a Life,” Dutch New York Between East and West: The World of Margrieta van Varick, ed. Deborah L. Krohn and Peter N. Miller. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Life Story: Sarah

  • Bond, Richard E. “Shaping a Conspiracy: Black Testimony in the 1741 New York Plot.” Early American Studies 5, no. 1 (2007): 63-94. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23546545.
  • Doolen, Andy. “Reading and Writing Terror: The New York Conspiracy Trials of 1741.” American Literary History 16, no. 3 (2004): 377-406. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3568057
  • Horsmanden, Daniel. The New-York conspiracy, or, A history of the Negro plot : with the journal of the proceedings against the conspirators at New-York in the years 1741-2 : together with several interesting tables, containing the names of the white and black persons arrested on account of the conspiracy–the times of their trials–their sentences–their executions by burning and hangings–names of those transported, and those discharged : with a variety of other useful and highly interesting matter. New York: Southwick and Pelsue, 1810.
  • Plaag, Eric W. “New York’s 1741 Slave Conspiracy in a Climate of Fear and Anxiety.” New York History 84, no. 3 (2003): 275-99. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23183369
  • Szasz, Ferenc M. “The New York Slave Revolt of 1741: A Re-Examination.” New York History 48, no. 3 (1967): 215-30. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23162951

Life Story: McLennan’s Female Slave

  • Jensen, Joan M. Loosening the Bonds: Mid-Atlantic Farm Women 1750-1850. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.
  • McLennan, John. “To be sold, a young Negro Woman about 20,” The New York Weekly Journal, 30 September 1734.
  • Nylander, Jane C. Our Own Snug Fireside: Images of the New England Home, 1760-1860. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1993.
  • West, Emily. Enslaved Women in America From Colonial Times to Emancipation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015.
  • Wood, Betty. Slavery in Colonial America, 1619-1776. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

Life Story: The Public Universal Friend

  • Hudson, David. History of Jemima Wilkinson, a Preacheress of the Eighteenth Century. Geneva, NY: Printed by S.P. Hull, 1821.
  • Larson, Scott. “‘Indescribable Being’: Theological Performances of Genderlessness in the Society of the Publick Universal Friend, 1776–1819.” Early American Studies 12, no. 3 (2014): 576-600. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24474871.
  • Moyer, Paul Benjamin. The Public Universal Friend: Jemima Wilkinson and religious enthusiasm in Revolutionary America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2015.

Life Story: Marguerite Faffart

  • Marrero, Karen L., “Women at the Crossroads,” Women in Early America, ed Thomas Foster. New York: New York University Press, 2015.
  • Sleeper-Smith, Susan. Indian Women and French Men. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.
  • Rushforth, Brett. Bonds of Alliance: Indigenous and Atlantic Slaveries in New France. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.

Life Story: Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau

  • Corbett, Katharine T. In Her Place: A Guide to St. Louis Women’s History. St. Louis: University of Missouri Press, 1999.
  • Gitlin, Jay. “Constructing the House of Chouteau: Saint Louis,” Early Cities of the Americas. Common-place.org, 2003. http://www.common-place-archives.org/vol-03/no-04/st-louis/
  • “Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau,” 250 in 250, Missouri History Center, http://250in250.mohistory.org/people/376, accessed 8/23/19.

Life Story: Susanna Wright

  • Cowell, Pattie. “”Womankind Call Reason to Their Aid”: Susanna Wright’s Verse Epistle on the Status of Women in Eighteenth-Century America.” Signs 6, no. 4 (1981): 795-800. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3173748
  • Dunn, Mary Maples. “Saints and Sisters: Congregational and Quaker Women in the Early Colonial Period.” American Quarterly 30, no. 5 (1978): 582-601. doi:10.2307/2712399
  • Wulf, Karin. Not All Wives: Women of Colonial Philadelphia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Life Story: Tituba

  • Norton, Mary Beth. In the Devil’s Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692. New York: Vintage Books, 2002.
  • Rosenthal, Bernard. “Tituba’s Story.” The New England Quarterly71, no. 2 (1998): 190-203. doi:10.2307/366502.

Life Story: Nansi Wiggins

  • Landers, Jane. Black Society in Spanish Florida. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999.
  • Landers, Jane. “Founding Mothers: Female Rebels in Colonial New Granada and Spanish Florida.” The Journal of African American History 98, no. 1 (2013): 7-23. doi:10.5323/jafriamerhist.98.1.0007.
  • Landers, Jane. “’In consideration of her enormous crime’: Rape and Infanticide in Spanish St. Augustine,” The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South, ed. Catherine Clinton and Michele Gillespie. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Life Story: Toypurina

  • Beebe, R. M., & Senkewicz, R. M. “Revolt at Mission San Gabriel, October 25, 1785: Judicial Proceedings and Related Documents,” Boletín: The Journal of the California Mission Studies Association, 24(2), 2007, 15–29.
  • Castañeda, Antonia I. “Engendering the History of Alta California, 1769-1848: Gender, Sexuality, and the Family.” California History 76, no. 2/3 (1997): 230-59. doi:10.2307/25161668.
  • Hackel, Steven W. “Sources of Rebellion: Indian Testimony and the Mission San Gabriel Uprising of 1785.” Ethnohistory 50.4 (2003).

Life Story: Mother Esther Marie-Joseph Wheelwright de l’Enfant

  • Kelly, Gerald M. “Esther Wheelwright,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/wheelwright_esther_4E.html, accessed 9/4/19.
  • Little, Ann M. “Cloistered Bodies: Convents in the Anglo-American Imagination in the British Conquest of Canada,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 39, no. 2 (2006): 187-200. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30053435.
  • Little, Ann M. The Many Captivities of Esther Wheelwright. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016.

The American Revolution

  • Berkin, Carol. Revolutionary Mothers. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
  • Countryman, Edward. The American Revolution. New York: Hill and Wang, 2003.
  • Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Schecter, Barnet. The Battle for New York. New York: Penguin, 2003.

Spinning Wheels, Spinning Bees

  • Berkin, Carol. Revolutionary Mothers. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
  • The National Museum of American History, “Spinning Wheel,” accessed 3/20/19, http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/search/object/nmah_1200991

A Call to Arms

  • Berkin, Carol, Revolutionary Mothers. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
  • Clutterbuck-Cook, Anna J.. “Mercy Otis Warren,” Women in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection, Volume 1, Peg A. Lamphier, and Rosanne Welch, eds. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2017.

The Edenton Tea Party

  • Berkin, Carol. Revolutionary Mothers. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
  • Chaffin, Robert J.. “The Townshend Acts crisis, 1767–1770”. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. Jack P. Greene, and J.R. Pole, eds. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell, 1991; reprint 1999.
  • Ketchum, Richard. Divided Loyalties, How the American Revolution came to New York, 2002.

Political Caricatures

  • Berkin, Carol. Revolutionary Mothers. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
  • Wynn Jones, Michael. The Cartoon History of the American Revolution. New York: Putnam, 1975.

The Battle of Lexington and Concord

  • Chidsey, Donald Barr. The Siege of Boston: An on-the-scene Account of the Beginning of the American Revolution. New York: Crown, 1966.
  • Hulton, Anne. Letters of a Loyalist Lady. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927.

Fear and Danger in New York

  • Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Schecter, Barnet. The Battle for New York. New York: Penguin, 2003.

Army Wife

  • Berkin, Carol. Revolutionary Mothers. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, “Lucy Knox on the home front during the Revolutionary War, 1777,” 2012. https://www.gilderlehrman.org/sites/default/files/inline-pdfs/ready.FPS_05895.pdf, accessed 3/28/19.
  • New England Historical Society, “The Love Letters of Lucy and Henry Knox.” http://www.newenglandhistoricalsociety.com/love-letters-lucy-henry-knox/, accessed 3/28/19.
  • Rubin Stuart, Nancy. Defiant Brides: The Untold Story of Two Revolutionary-Era Women and the Radical Men They Married. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2013.

Madam Sacho and Sullivan’s Army

  • Frederick Cook and George S. Conover, ed, Journals of the military expedition of Major General John Sullivan against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779. Auburn, N.Y.: Knapp, Peck, & Thomson, 1887.
  • Pearsall, Sarah M. S. “Madam Sacho: How One Iroquois Woman Survived the American Revolution,” Humanities, May/June 2015, Volume 36, Number 3. https://www.neh.gov/humanities/2015/mayjune/feature/madam-sacho-how-one-iroquois-woman-survived-the-american-revolution, accessed 4/2/19.
  • Pearsall, Sarah M. “Re-Centering Indian Women in the American Revolution” in Susan Sleeper-Smith, et al, eds. Why You Can’t Teach American History without Indians. University of North Carolina Press, 2015.

Abolition and Revolution

  • Carretta, Vincent. “Phillis Wheatley: An 18th Century Genius in Bondage,” The Public Domain Review, https://publicdomainreview.org/2012/02/06/phillis-wheatley-an-eighteenth-century-genius-in-bondage/, accessed 4/4/19.
  • Isani, Mukhtar Ali, and Phillis Wheatley. “”On the Death of General Wooster”: An Unpublished Poem by Phillis Wheatley.” Modern Philology 77, no. 3 (1980): 306-09. http://www.jstor.org/stable/437820.
  • Massachusetts Historical Society, “Letter from Phillis Wheatley to Mary Wooster, 15 July 1778.” https://www.masshist.org/database/viewer.php?item_id=772, accessed 4/4/19.

Reflections from the Home Front

  • Berkin, Carol. Revolutionary Mothers. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
  • Gutridge, Molly. A new touch on the times: Well adapted to the distressing situation of every sea-port town. Danvers, MA: Ezekiel Russell, 1779.

Sentiments of an American Woman

  • Arendt, Emily J. “”Ladies Going about for Money”: Female Voluntary Associations and Civic Consciousness in the American Revolution.” Journal of the Early Republic 34, no. 2 (2014): 157-86. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24486686.
  • Berkin,Carol. Revolutionary Mothers. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
  • Fry Plakas, Rosemary. “The Sentiments of an American Woman,” Library of Congress, American Memory, https://memory.loc.gov/ammem/awhhtml/awhendp/index.html, accessed 4/5/19.

Evacuating the Colonies

  • Pybus, Cassandra. 2005. “Jefferson’s faulty math: the question of slave defections in the American Revolution”. William and Mary Quarterly. 62 (2).
  • St. G. Walker, James W. “Blacks as American Loyalists: The Slaves’ War for Independence.” Historical Reflections / Réflexions Historiques 2, no. 1 (1975): 51-67. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41298659.
  • “What Was the Book of Negroes?” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, no. 63 (2009): 28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40407581.

Life Story: Margaret Corbin

  • Berkin, Carol. Revolutionary Mothers. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
  • Biography Index of the National Women’s History Museum, s.v. “Margaret Cochran Corbin (1751–1800),” https://www.nwhm.org/educationresources/biography/biographies/margaret-cochran-corbin/ (accessed 5-23-16).
  • Brett, Megan. “Margaret Cochran Corbin and the Papers of the War Department,” October 20, 2014, 18th Century Common, https://www.18thcenturycommon.org/corbin/, accessed 4/17/19.
  • Roberts, Cokie. Founding Mothers: The Women Who Raised Our Nation. New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 2004, 79.
  • Shannon, Timothy J. “Native American-Pennsylvanian Relations, 1754-1789,” 2015, The Encyclopedia of Greater Pennsylvania, https://philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/native-american-pennsylvania-relations-1754-89-2/, accessed 4/17/19.

Life Story: Lorenda Holmes

  • Burrows, Edwin G., and Mike Wallace. 1999. Gotham: a history of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Grant De Pauw, Linda. Founding Mothers: Women in America in the Revolutionary Era. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1994.
  • Holmes, Lorenda. NORTH AMERICA: Compensation: Memorial and petition of Lorenda Holmes for compensation for loss of property in New York City, and Sufferings experienced when acting as a courier for the Loyalist cause, 1789. The National Archives of the UK at Kew (TNA).

Life Story: Deborah Squash

  • British Headquarters Papers, Manuscript and Archives Division, New York Public Library, item no. 10247, “Book of Negroes”, pp. 23-24.
  • Gehred, Kathryn. “Escaping George Washington: The Story of Deborah Squash,” The Washington Papers, December 15, 2017, http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/escaping-general-washington-story-deborah-squash/, accessed 5/1/19.
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.

Life Story: Peggy Gwynn

  • British Headquarters Papers, Manuscript and Archives Division, New York Public Library, item no. 9656.

Life Story: Margaret “Peggy” Shippen Arnold

  • Rubin Stuart, Nancy. Defiant Brides: The Untold Story of Two Revolutionary-Era Women and the Radical Men They Married. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2013.

Life Story: Nanyehi Nancy Ward

  • “A Brief History of the Trail of Tears,” Cherokee Nation Cultural Resource Center, http://www.cherokee.org/AboutTheNation/History/TrailofTears/ABriefHistoryoftheTrailofTears.aspx (accessed by M. Waters, 10-18-2016).
  • Berkin, Carol. Revolutionary Mothers. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
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