1492 – 1734 Early Encounters Supplemental Materials

Art Activities

Vermeer’s Portrait of Wealth and Trade

The trade empire created by the Dutch Republic in the 1600s was far-reaching and lucrative, and women were involved in every phase: as traders, manufacturers, consumers, and more (see Life Story of Johanna de Laet). Johannes Vermeer captures this in his painting Young Woman with a Water Pitcher. Four hundred years later, global trade is still essential to the success of many national economies, including that of the United States. Imported products are prevalent in most American homes and reflect our reliance on goods from abroad. Now, as then, many women are actively engaged in global trade.

In this activity, students will imagine they are twenty-first-century artists who are commissioned to create a portrait of wealth and trade for the United States. Students must first conduct research to determine popular items imported to the United States and where they originate. Then, using their findings, students will create an interior space similar to Vermeer’s to showcase these items and how they impact their everyday lives.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Adventuring for Art and Science

Maria Sibylla Merian‘s fascination with the plants and animals found in her childhood backyard provided a foundation for her future scientific career. She intended her books to be used as educational tools from which scientists and scholars could learn and study, and therefore her published illustrations needed to be accurate, clear, and easy to read. Maria used her artistic prowess to accomplish this, as is evident in Plate 11, Metamorphosis insectorum surinamensium.

Students will embody the role of environmental scientist by finding, recording, and sketching flora and fauna in their own communities. Then, inspired by the Maria’s artwork, students will create a well-composed watercolor illustration that showcases their discoveries.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Revolution in Art

Ceramics is a long-standing and important art form to the Pueblo and Hopi nations that dates back to the fifteenth century. Pottery is a useful tool that allowed for more efficient cooking and storage, and thus its production has traditionally been a woman’s job. Pots vary in size and shape, and painted designs are diverse, having evolved over time because of changing cultural influences. Today, ceramics continues to be a vibrant form of artistic expression practiced by these nations.

Students will create their own clay pots using the coil-construction method. By doing so, they will explore the authentic artistic process used to make Pueblo pottery and discover the skills needed to successfully produce a pot that is both functional and aesthetic.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Source Notes

Women in the Dutch Colonies, 1624-1715

  • Fabend, Firth Haring. New Netherland in a Nutshell: A Concise History of the Dutch Colony in North America. Albany, NY: New Netherland Institute, 2012.
  • Shorto, Russell. The Island at the Center of the World: The Epic Story of Dutch Manhattan and the Forgotten Colony That Shaped America. London: Abacus, 2014.
  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in
  • Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • Goodfriend, Joyce D. “Writing/Righting Dutch Colonial History.” New York History 80, no. 1 (1999): 4-28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23182347.
  • Breen, Louise. Converging Worlds: Communities and Cultures in Colonial America. New York: Routledge, 2012.
  • Todt, Kim. “‘Women Are as Knowing Therein as the Men’: Dutch Women in Early America.” In Women in Early America. Edited by Thomas A. Foster, Carol Berkin, and Jennifer L. Morgan. New York: New York University Press, 2015, pp. 43-65.

Fighting for Freedom in New Amsterdam

  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • Bonomi, Patricia U. “‘Swarms of Negroes Coming about My Door’: Black Christianity in Early
  • Dutch and English North America.” Journal of American History 103, no. 1 (2016): 34-58. doi:10.1093/jahist/jaw007.
  • “Slavery in New Netherland,” The New Netherland Institute. Accessed May 3, 2017. https://www.newnetherlandinstitute.org/history-and-heritage/ digital-exhibitions/slavery-exhibit.

Translating for the Dutch and Lenni-Lenape

  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • Fabend, Firth Haring. New Netherland in a Nutshell: A Concise History of the Dutch Colony in North America. Albany, NY: New Netherland Institute, 2017.
  • Lipman, Andrew. The Saltwater Frontier: Indians and the Contest for the American Coast. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017.
  • Otto, Paul. The Dutch-Munsee Encounter in America: The Struggle for Sovereignty in the Hudson Valley. New York: Berghahn Books, 2006.

Vermeer’s Portrait of Wealth and Trade

  • Boxer, Charles Ralph. The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600–1800. New York: Penguin Books, 1989.
  • Steingruber, Elmar. “Indigo and Indigo Colorants.” In Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. 2004.
  • Wieseman, Marjorie E., Johannes Vermeer, H. Perry Chapman, and Wayne E. Franits. Vermeer’s Women: Secrets and Silence. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum, 2011.
  • Koning, Hans. The World of Vermeer 1632-1675. Amsterdam: Time-Life International, 1978.
  • Laver, James. Costume and Fashion: A Concise History. London: Thames and Hudson, 2014.
  • Grabar, Oleg, M. S. Dimand, and Jean Mailey. “Oriental Rugs in the Metropolitan Museum.” Artibus Asiae 38, no. 1 (1976): 84. doi:10.2307/3250098.
  • Schoeser, Mary. World Textiles: A Concise History. London: Thames and Hudson, 2003.
  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.

Negotiating the Surrender of New Netherland

  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • Fabend, Firth Haring. New Netherland in a Nutshell: A Concise History of the Dutch Colony in North America. Albany, NY: New Netherland Institute, 2017.
  • Testimony, March 4, 1667. Not. Arch. 3191, 101-102, Not H. Outgers, Stadsarchief Amsterdam. Archive 883, Archief van Dr. S. Hart, inventory 597.

Childcare in the New World

Hardenbroeck v. the Orphanmasters

  • Adriana E. Van Zwieten, “The Orphan Chamber of New Amsterdam.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 53, No. 2 (1996), pp. 319–40. doi:10.2307/2947403.
  • “Margaret Hardenbroek De Vries Philipse,” The National Society of Colonial Dames in the State of New York, accessed March 22, 2017, http://www.nscdny.org/major-projects/margaret-hardenbroek/.
  • Maria Vann, “Dutch Women in Seventeenth-Century New Netherland,” New York History Review, April 29, 2013, accessed March 22, 2017, http://nyhrarticles.blogspot.com/2013/04/dutch-womenin-seventeenth-century-new.html.

Founding Mother: Catalina Trico

  • Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York
    City to 1898 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
  • Russell Shorto, The Island at the Center of the World (New York: Random House, 2005).
  • Susanah Shaw Romney, New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America (Chapel Hill, NC: 2014).

Life Story: Johanna de Laet

  • Pencak, William, and Conrad Edick Wright. “Dutch Customs of Inheritance, Women, and the Law in Colonial New York City.” In Authority and Resistance in Early New York. New York: New-York Historical Society, 1988.
  • Biemer, Linda Briggs. Women and Property in Colonial New York: The Transition from Dutch to English Law 1643-1727. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1983.
  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • November 1, 1654. New York State Archives. New York (Colony). Secretary of the Province. Register of the Provincial Secretary, 1642-1660. Series A0270-78. Volume 3, document 125.
  • March 26, 1657. New York State Archives. New Netherland. Council. Dutch colonial council minutes, 1638-1665. Series A1809. Volume 8.
  • March 27, 1657. New York State Archives. New Netherland. Council. Dutch colonial patents and deeds, 1630-1664. Series A1880. Volume HH.
  • May 7, 1653. New York State Archives. New York (Colony). Council. Dutch colonial administrative correspondence, 1646-1664. Series A1810-78. Volume 11, document 78, 1.
  • Answer to complaint. October 13, 1661. New York State Archives. New Netherland. Council. Dutch colonial council minutes, 1638-1665. Series A1809. Volume 9.
  • Gehring, Charles T. Fort Orange Court Minutes, 1652-1660. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1990.
  • Brink, Andrew. Invading Paradise: Esopus Settlers at War with the Natives, 1659, 1663. Xlibris US, 2003.
  • New York Historical Manuscripts, Dutch: Published under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub., 1974.
  • Gehring, Charles T. Fort Orange Records, 1656-1678. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000.
  • Pearson, Jonathan. Early Records of the City and County of Albany and Colony of Rensselaerswyck: Volumes 2-4. Albany, NY: University of the State of New York, 1916.
  • Fernow, Berthold. The Minutes of the Orphanmasters of New Amsterdam, 1655-1663. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub., 1902.

Life Story: Quashawam

  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • The Second Book of Records of the Town of Southampton Long Island, N.Y.: With Other Ancient Documents of Historic Value. Sag-Harbor: John H. Hunt, Printer, 1877.
  • Strong, John A. The Montaukett Indians of Eastern Long Island. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2006.

Life Story: Lisbeth Anthonijsen

  • Fernow, Berthold. The Records of New Amsterdam from 1653 to 1674 Anno Domini. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1976.
  • Susanah Shaw Romney, “Intimate Networks and Children’s Survival in New Netherland in the Seventeenth Century.” Early American Studies 7, no. 2 (2009): 270–308. www.jstor.org/stable/23546620.

Life Story: Maria Sibylla Merian

  • Davis, Natalie Zemon. Women on the Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Life Story: Lady Deborah Moody

  • Jacqueline Overton and Phoebe Dodge. “The Quakers on Long Island.” New York History 21, no. 2 (1940), pp. 151–61. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23134981.
  • Jean P. Jordan, “Women Merchants in Colonial New York,” New York History 58, no.4 (1977), pp. 412–39. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23169726.
  • “Lady Deborah Moody—A Dangerous Woman Comes to New England,” New England Historical Society, accessed March 22, 2017, http://www.newenglandhistoricalsociety.com/ladydeborah-moody-a-dangerous-womancomes-to-new-england/.
  • Russell Shorto, The Island at the Center of the World (New York: Random House, 2005).

Women in the English Colonies, 1607-1715

  • Taylor, Alan, and Eric Foner. American Colonies: The Settling of North America. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
  • Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Goodwives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England 1650-1750. New York: Random House, 1986.
  • Breen, Louise. Converging Worlds: Communities and Cultures in Colonial America. New York: Routledge, 2012.

The Last Will and Testament of Joseph Grover

  • Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Goodwives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England 1650-1750, New York: Random House, 1986.
  • Snyder, Terri L. “Women, Race, and the Law in Early America.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. September 2015.

Legislating