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Supplemental Materials2019-03-05T14:03:15-04:00

Art Activities

Vermeer’s Portrait of Wealth and Trade

The trade empire created by the Dutch Republic in the 1600s was far-reaching and lucrative, and women were involved in every phase: as traders, manufacturers, consumers, and more (see Life Story of Johanna de Laet). Johannes Vermeer captures this in his painting Young Woman with a Water Pitcher. Four hundred years later, global trade is still essential to the success of many national economies, including that of the United States. Imported products are prevalent in most American homes and reflect our reliance on goods from abroad. Now, as then, many women are actively engaged in global trade.

In this activity, students will imagine they are twenty-first-century artists who are commissioned to create a portrait of wealth and trade for the United States. Students must first conduct research to determine popular items imported to the United States and where they originate. Then, using their findings, students will create an interior space similar to Vermeer’s to showcase these items and how they impact their everyday lives.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Adventuring for Art and Science

Maria Sibylla Merian‘s fascination with the plants and animals found in her childhood backyard provided a foundation for her future scientific career. She intended her books to be used as educational tools from which scientists and scholars could learn and study, and therefore her published illustrations needed to be accurate, clear, and easy to read. Maria used her artistic prowess to accomplish this, as is evident in Plate 11, Metamorphosis insectorum surinamensium.

Students will embody the role of environmental scientist by finding, recording, and sketching flora and fauna in their own communities. Then, inspired by the Maria’s artwork, students will create a well-composed watercolor illustration that showcases their discoveries.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Revolution in Art

Ceramics is a long-standing and important art form to the Pueblo and Hopi nations that dates back to the fifteenth century. Pottery is a useful tool that allowed for more efficient cooking and storage, and thus its production has traditionally been a woman’s job. Pots vary in size and shape, and painted designs are diverse, having evolved over time because of changing cultural influences. Today, ceramics continues to be a vibrant form of artistic expression practiced by these nations.

Students will create their own clay pots using the coil-construction method. By doing so, they will explore the authentic artistic process used to make Pueblo pottery and discover the skills needed to successfully produce a pot that is both functional and aesthetic.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Source Notes

Women in the Dutch Colonies, 1624-1715

  • Fabend, Firth Haring. New Netherland in a Nutshell: A Concise History of the Dutch Colony in North America. Albany, NY: New Netherland Institute, 2012.
  • Shorto, Russell. The Island at the Center of the World: The Epic Story of Dutch Manhattan and the Forgotten Colony That Shaped America. London: Abacus, 2014.
  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in
  • Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • Goodfriend, Joyce D. “Writing/Righting Dutch Colonial History.” New York History 80, no. 1 (1999): 4-28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23182347.
  • Breen, Louise. Converging Worlds: Communities and Cultures in Colonial America. New York: Routledge, 2012.
  • Todt, Kim. “‘Women Are as Knowing Therein as the Men’: Dutch Women in Early America.” In Women in Early America. Edited by Thomas A. Foster, Carol Berkin, and Jennifer L. Morgan. New York: New York University Press, 2015, pp. 43-65.

Fighting for Freedom in New Amsterdam

  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • Bonomi, Patricia U. “‘Swarms of Negroes Coming about My Door’: Black Christianity in Early
  • Dutch and English North America.” Journal of American History 103, no. 1 (2016): 34-58. doi:10.1093/jahist/jaw007.
  • “Slavery in New Netherland,” The New Netherland Institute. Accessed May 3, 2017. https://www.newnetherlandinstitute.org/history-and-heritage/ digital-exhibitions/slavery-exhibit.

Translating for the Dutch and Lenni-Lenape

  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • Fabend, Firth Haring. New Netherland in a Nutshell: A Concise History of the Dutch Colony in North America. Albany, NY: New Netherland Institute, 2017.
  • Lipman, Andrew. The Saltwater Frontier: Indians and the Contest for the American Coast. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017.
  • Otto, Paul. The Dutch-Munsee Encounter in America: The Struggle for Sovereignty in the Hudson Valley. New York: Berghahn Books, 2006.

Vermeer’s Portrait of Wealth and Trade

  • Boxer, Charles Ralph. The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600–1800. New York: Penguin Books, 1989.
  • Steingruber, Elmar. “Indigo and Indigo Colorants.” In Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. 2004.
  • Wieseman, Marjorie E., Johannes Vermeer, H. Perry Chapman, and Wayne E. Franits. Vermeer’s Women: Secrets and Silence. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum, 2011.
  • Koning, Hans. The World of Vermeer 1632-1675. Amsterdam: Time-Life International, 1978.
  • Laver, James. Costume and Fashion: A Concise History. London: Thames and Hudson, 2014.
  • Grabar, Oleg, M. S. Dimand, and Jean Mailey. “Oriental Rugs in the Metropolitan Museum.” Artibus Asiae 38, no. 1 (1976): 84. doi:10.2307/3250098.
  • Schoeser, Mary. World Textiles: A Concise History. London: Thames and Hudson, 2003.
  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.

Negotiating the Surrender of New Netherland

  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • Fabend, Firth Haring. New Netherland in a Nutshell: A Concise History of the Dutch Colony in North America. Albany, NY: New Netherland Institute, 2017.
  • Testimony, March 4, 1667. Not. Arch. 3191, 101-102, Not H. Outgers, Stadsarchief Amsterdam. Archive 883, Archief van Dr. S. Hart, inventory 597.

Childcare in the New World

Life Story: Johanna de Laet

  • Pencak, William, and Conrad Edick Wright. “Dutch Customs of Inheritance, Women, and the Law in Colonial New York City.” In Authority and Resistance in Early New York. New York: New-York Historical Society, 1988.
  • Biemer, Linda Briggs. Women and Property in Colonial New York: The Transition from Dutch to English Law 1643-1727. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1983.
  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • November 1, 1654. New York State Archives. New York (Colony). Secretary of the Province. Register of the Provincial Secretary, 1642-1660. Series A0270-78. Volume 3, document 125.
  • March 26, 1657. New York State Archives. New Netherland. Council. Dutch colonial council minutes, 1638-1665. Series A1809. Volume 8.
  • March 27, 1657. New York State Archives. New Netherland. Council. Dutch colonial patents and deeds, 1630-1664. Series A1880. Volume HH.
  • May 7, 1653. New York State Archives. New York (Colony). Council. Dutch colonial administrative correspondence, 1646-1664. Series A1810-78. Volume 11, document 78, 1.
  • Answer to complaint. October 13, 1661. New York State Archives. New Netherland. Council. Dutch colonial council minutes, 1638-1665. Series A1809. Volume 9.
  • Gehring, Charles T. Fort Orange Court Minutes, 1652-1660. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1990.
  • Brink, Andrew. Invading Paradise: Esopus Settlers at War with the Natives, 1659, 1663. Xlibris US, 2003.
  • New York Historical Manuscripts, Dutch: Published under the Direction of the Holland Society of New York. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub., 1974.
  • Gehring, Charles T. Fort Orange Records, 1656-1678. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000.
  • Pearson, Jonathan. Early Records of the City and County of Albany and Colony of Rensselaerswyck: Volumes 2-4. Albany, NY: University of the State of New York, 1916.
  • Fernow, Berthold. The Minutes of the Orphanmasters of New Amsterdam, 1655-1663. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub., 1902.

Life Story: Quashawam

  • Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • The Second Book of Records of the Town of Southampton Long Island, N.Y.: With Other Ancient Documents of Historic Value. Sag-Harbor: John H. Hunt, Printer, 1877.
  • Strong, John A. The Montaukett Indians of Eastern Long Island. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2006.

Life Story: Lisbeth Anthonijsen

  • Fernow, Berthold. The Records of New Amsterdam from 1653 to 1674 Anno Domini. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1976.
  • Susanah Shaw Romney, “Intimate Networks and Children’s Survival in New Netherland in the Seventeenth Century.” Early American Studies 7, no. 2 (2009): 270–308. www.jstor.org/stable/23546620.

Life Story: Maria Sibylla Merian

  • Davis, Natalie Zemon. Women on the Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Women in the English Colonies, 1607-1715

  • Taylor, Alan, and Eric Foner. American Colonies: The Settling of North America. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
  • Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Goodwives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England 1650-1750. New York: Random House, 1986.
  • Breen, Louise. Converging Worlds: Communities and Cultures in Colonial America. New York: Routledge, 2012.

The Last Will and Testament of Joseph Grover

  • Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Goodwives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England 1650-1750, New York: Random House, 1986.
  • Snyder, Terri L. “Women, Race, and the Law in Early America.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. September 2015.

Legislating Reproduction and Racial Difference in Virginia

  • Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
  • Clinton, Catherine, and Michele Gillespie. “Crimes of Love, Misdemeanors of Passion: The Regulation of Race and Sex in the Colonial South.” In The Devil S Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Morgan, Jennifer L. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.
  • “Slavery and Indentured Servants.” Law Library of Congress. Accessed February 27, 2018. https://memory.loc.gov/ammem/awhhtml/awlaw3/slavery.html.
  • Snyder, Terri L. “Women, Race, and the Law in Early America.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. September 2015.

Mortar and Pestle for Pounding Rice

  • Morgan, Jennifer L. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.
  • Tuten, James H. Lowcountry Time and Tide: The Fall of the South Carolina Rice Kingdom. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2012.

Patent for Cleaning and Curing Corn

  • Gribble, T. Graham. “Fossil Patents.” Scientific American 65, no. 5 (1891): 71-73. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican08011891-71.
  • Samuel H. Needles and Sibilla Masters. “The Governor’s Mill, and the Globe Mills, Philadelphia.” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography8, no. 3 (1884): 279-99. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20084660.

Mourning Poetry of Anne Bradstreet

  • Bradstreet, Anne, and John Harvard Ellis. The Works of Anne Bradstreet, in Prose and Verse. Charlestown, A. E. Cutter, 1867.
  • Campbell, Helen. Anne Bradstreet and Her Time. Boston: D. Lothrop, 1891.
  • Martin, Wendy. “Anne Bradstreet.” PoetryFoundation.org. Accessed February 28, 2018.
  • https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/anne-bradstreet.
  • Miranda, Alberta M. “Anne Bradstreet.” In Women in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection, Volume 1. Edited by Peg A. Lamphier and Rosanne Welch. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2017, pp. 91-92.

Witchcraft in Bermuda

  • Dennis, Matthew, and Elizabeth Reis. “Women as Witches, Witches as Women.” In Women in Early America. Edited by Thomas A. Foster, Carol Berkin, and Jennifer L. Morgan. New York: New York University Press, 2015, pp. 66-94.
  • Bernhard, Virginia “Religion, Politics, and Witchcraft in Bermuda, 1651–55.” The William and Mary Quarterly67, no. 4, 2010.

Life Story: Weetamoo

  • Leach, Douglas Edward. “The ‘Whens’ of Mary Rowlandson’s Captivity.” The New England Quarterly34, no. 3 (1961): 352-363.
  • Mather, Increase. A brief history of the war with the Indians in New-England. Boston: John Foster, 1676.
  • Potter, Tiffany. “Writing Indigenous Femininity: Mary Rowlandsons Narrative of Captivity.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 36, no. 2, 2003.
  • Rowlandson, Mary White. A Narrative of the Captivity, Sufferings and Removes, of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. Boston: S. Hall, 1794.
  • Steele, Ian K. Warpaths: Invasions of North America. Bridgewater, NJ: Replica Books, 2000.

Life Story: Thomas(ine) Hall

  • Beeman, Genny. “Transgender History in the United States.” In Trans Bodies, Trans Selves. Edited by Laura Erickson-Schroth. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 501-532.
  • Brown, Kathleen M. “‘Changed . . . into the Fashion of Man.’ The Politics of Sexual Difference in a Seventeenth-Century Anglo-American Settlement.” In The Devils Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South. Edited by Catherine Clinton and Michele Gillespie. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 39-53.
  • Minutes of the Council and General Court of Colonial Virginia, 1622-1632, 1670-1676. Edited by H. R. McIlwaine. Richmond, VA: The Colonial Press, Everett Waddey Co., 1924, pp. 194-195.
  • Vaughan, Alden T. “The Sad Case of Thomas(ine) Hall.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography86, no. 2, 1978. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4248200.

Life Story: Dennis and Hannah Holland

  • Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
  • Woloch, Nancy. Women and the American Experience, 5th ed. New-York: McGraw Hill, 2011.
  • Wood, Betty. “Servant Women and Sex in the Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake.” In Women in Early America. Edited by Thomas A. Foster, Carol Berkin, and Jennifer L. Morgan. New York: New York University Press, 2015, pp. 95-117.
  • Lois Green Carr and Lorena S. Walsh, “The Planter’s Wife: The Experience of White Women in Seventeenth-Century Maryland.” The William and Mary Quarterly34, no. 4 (1977): 542-571. doi:10.2307/2936182.
  • Somerset County Court Judicial Record, Archives of Maryland Online, January Court 1673/4, Vol. 87, 302-309. Accessed March 7, 2018.
  • Somerset County Court Judicial Record, Archives of Maryland Online, August Court 1674, Vol. 87, 368. Accessed March 7, 2018.
  • Somerset County Court Judicial Record, Archives of Maryland Online, August Court, 1690, Vol. 106, 167. Accessed March 7, 2018.
  • Somerset County Court Judicial Record, Archives of Maryland Online, October Court, 1690, Vol. 106. Accessed March 7, 2018.
  • Somerset County Court Judicial Record, Archives of Maryland Online, September Court, 1692, Vol. 406, 48. Accessed March 7, 2018.
  • Somerset County Court Judicial Record, Archives of Maryland Online, October Courts, 1692, Vol. 406, 126-127. Accessed March 7, 2018.
  • Somerset County Court Judicial Record, Archives of Maryland Online, November Court, 1694, Vol. 535, 89. Accessed March 7, 2018.

Women in the Spanish Colonies, 1492-1700

  • Burkholder, Mark A., and Lyman L. Johnson. Colonial Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Weber, David J. The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
  • Breen, Louise. Converging Worlds: Communities and Cultures in Colonial America. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Instructions for the New World

  • Simpson, Lesley Byrd. The Encomienda in New Spain. Los Angeles: The University of California Press, 1966.
  • Zavala, Cynthia M. “Queens, European, Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603) and Isabella of Castile (1451-1504),” In Women in American History, Volume 1. Edited by Peg A. Lamphair and Rosanne Welch. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2017.

Life on the Encomienda

  • Burkholder, Mark A., and Lyman L. Johnson. Colonial Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Simpson, Lesley Byrd. The Encomienda in New Spain. Los Angeles: The University of California Press, 1966.
  • Weber, David J. The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

A Nun Challenges the Patriarchy

  • Bénassy-Berling, Marie-Cécile. Humanismo y religión en Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. Mexico City: UNAM, 1983.
  • Stavans, Ilan. “Introduction.” In Poems, Protest, and a Dream: Selected Writings. Translated by Margaret Sayers Peden. Penguin Books: New York, 1997.
  • “Sor Inés de la Cruz.” Poets.org. Academy of American Poets. Accessed April 11, 2018. https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/sor-juana-in%C3%A9s-de-la-cruz.

The Middle Passage

Marriage Contracts in the Spanish Colonies

  • Gauderman, Kimberly. Women’s Lives in Colonial Quito: Gender, Law, and Economy in Spanish America. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2003.

Revolution in Art

Life Story: Doña Teresa de Aguilera y Roche

  • Gutiérrez, Ramón A. “Doña Teresa de Aguilera y Roche before the Inquisition: The Travails of a Seventeenth-Century Aristocratic Woman in New Mexico.” In Women in Early America. Edited by Carol Berkin, Thomas A. Foster, and Jennifer L. Morgan. New York: New York University Press, 2015.
  • Levine, Frances. Doña Teresa Confronts the Spanish Inquisition: A Seventeenth-Century New Mexican Drama. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2016.

Life Story: Malitzen (La Malinche)

  • Kidwell, Clara Sue. “Indian Women as Cultural Mediators.” Ethnohistory 39, no. 2, 1992.
  • Chaison, Joanne Danaher. “Mysterious Malinche: A Case of Mistaken Identity.” The Americas 32, no. 4, 1976.
  • Cumo, Christopher. “Malinche.” In Women in American History, Volume 1. Edited by Peg A. Lamphair and Rosanne Welch. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2017.
  • Burkholder, Mark A., and Lyman L. Johnson. Colonial Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Townsend, Camilla. Malintzin’s Choices: an Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico. Alberquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 2006.

Life Story: The Gateras of Quito

  • Gauderman, Kimberly. Women’s Lives in Colonial Quito: Gender, Law, and Economy in Spanish America. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2003.
  • Andrien, Kenneth J. “Economic Crisis, Taxes and The Quito Insurrection Of 1765.” Past and Present 129, no. 1, 1990.

Women in the French Colonies, 1600-1734

Marrying into the New World

  • Gagné, Peter J. Before the King’s Daughters: The Filles à Marier, 1634-1662. Orange Park, FL: Quintin Publications, 2002.
  • Lanctot, Gustave. Filles de joie ou filles du roi. Montréal: Les Éditions Chantecler Ltée, 1952.
  • Zug, Marcia. Buying a Bride: An Engaging History of Mail-Order Matches. New York: New York University Press, 2016.

Education in New France

  • L’Incarnation, Marie de, and Claude Martin. From Mother to Son: The Selected Letters of Marie De Lincarnation to Claude Martin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Greer, Allan. The People of New France. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997.
  • Davis, Natalie Zemon. Women on the Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Women and the Code Noir

  • Le Code Noir, Ou, Edit Du Roy, Servant De Reglement Pour Le Gouvernement & Ladministration De Justice & La Police Des Isles Françoises De LAmerique, & Pour La Discipline & Le Commerce Des Négres & Esclaves Dans Ledit Pays. Paris: Au Palais, Chez G. Girard, 1735.
  • Jones, Terry L. The Louisiana Journey. Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith, 2007.
  • Stovall, Tyler. “Race and the Making of the Nation: Blacks in Modern France.” In Diasporic Africa: A Reader. Edited by Michael Angelo Gomez. New York: New York University Press, 2006.
  • Aubert, Guillaume. “‘The Blood of France’: Race and Purity of Blood in the French Atlantic World.” William and Mary Quarterly 61, no. 3, 2004.

Native Women and Agricultural Innovation

Life Story: Charlotte-Françoise Juchereau de Saint-Denis

  • Caldwell, Norman W. “Charles Juchereau De St. Denys: A French Pioneer in the Mississippi Valley.” The Mississippi Valley Historical Review 28, no. 4, 1942.
  • Noel, Janet. “”Nagging Wife” Revisited: Women and the Fur Trade in New France.” French Colonial History 7, no. 1, 2006.
  • Peyser, Joseph L. “The Fall and Rise of Thérèse Catin: A Portrait from Indiana’s French and Canadian History.” Indiana Magazine of History91, no. 4, 1995. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27791869.
  • Fortier, John, and Donald Chaput. “A Historical Reexamination of Juchereau’s Illinois Tannery.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (1908-1984) 62, no. 4 (1969): 385-406. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40190890.
  • “François Dauphin de la Forest.” Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Accessed April 30, 2018. http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/dauphin_de_la_forest_francois_2E.html.
  • “Charlotte-Françoise Juchereau de Saint-Denis.” Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Accessed April 30, 2018. http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/juchereau_de_saint_denis_charlotte_francoise_2E.html.
  • “Nicholas Juchereau de Saint-Denis.” Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Accessed April 30, 2018. http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/juchereau_de_saint_denis_nicolas_1E.html.
  • “François Viennay-Pachot.” Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Accessed April 30, 2018. http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/viennay_pachot_francois_1E.html.
  • Marreno, Karen L. “Women at the Crossroads: Trade, Mobility, and Power in Early French America and Detroit.” In Women in Early America. Edited by Thomas A. Foster, Carol Berkin, and Jennifer L. Morgan. New York: New York University Press, 2015, pp. 159-185.
  • Ross, J. Andrew, and Andrew D. Smith. Canada’s Entrepreneurs: From the Fur Trade to the 1929 Stock Market Crash. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011.

Life Story: Kateri Tekakwitha

  • Greer, Allan. Mohawk Saint: Catherine Tekakwitha and the Jesuits. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Life Story: Marie-Josèphe Angélique

  • Allan Greer. The People of New France. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017.
  • Beaugrand-Champagne, Denyse and Leon Robichaud. “Torture and Truth: Angelique and the Burning of Montreal.” Great Unsolved Mysteries in Canadian History. Accessed April 27, 2018. http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/contexte/laville/indexen.html.
  • Afua Cooper. The Hanging of Angelique. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 2007.

Suggested Reading

Books and Articles

Beeman, Genny. “Transgender History in the United States.” Part of Trans Bodies, Trans Selves: A Resource for the Transgender Community. Edited by Laura Erickson-Schroth. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. Available online at: https://www.umass.edu/stonewall/sites/default/files/Infoforandabout/transpeople/genny_beemyn_transgender_history_in_the_united_states.pdf   1, no. 3, 2004. Press, 1997.

Breen, Louise. Converging Worlds: Communities and Cultures in Colonial America. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Burkholder, Mark A., and Lyman L. Johnson. Colonial Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Bush, Barbara. “African Caribbean Slave Mothers and Children: Traumas of Dislocation and Enslavement Across the Atlantic World.” Caribbean Quarterly 56, no. 1/2 (2010): 69-94. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40654953.

Clinton, Catherine, and Michele Gillespie, eds. The Devils Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Davis, Natalie Zemon. Women on the Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Evans, Sara M. Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Fabend, Firth Haring. New Netherland in a Nutshell: A Concise History of the Dutch Colony in North America. Albany, NY: New Netherland Institute, 2012.

Foster, Thomas A., ed. Women in Early America. New York: New York University Press, 2015: pp. 66-94.

Gauderman, Kimberly. Women’s Lives in Colonial Quito: Gender, Law, and Economy in Spanish America. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2003.

Greer, Allan. Mohawk Saint: Catherine Tekakwitha and the Jesuits. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

__________. The People of New France. 2nd rev. ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997.

Lamphier, Peg A., and Rosanne Welch, eds. Women in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2017: pp. 91-92.

Levine, Frances. Doña Teresa Confronts the Spanish Inquisition: A Seventeenth-Century New Mexican Drama. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2016.

L’Incarnation, Marie de, and Claude Martin. From Mother to Son: The Selected Letters of Marie De Lincarnation to Claude Martin. Mary Dunn, trans. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Lipman, Andrew. The Saltwater Frontier: Indians and the Contest for the American Coast. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017.

Morgan, Jennifer L. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Otto, Paul. The Dutch-Munsee Encounter in America: The Struggle for Sovereignty in the Hudson Valley. New York: Berghahn Books, 2006.

Romney, Susanah Shaw. New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in

Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.

Ross, J. Andrew, and Andrew D. Smith. Canada’s Entrepreneurs: From the Fur Trade to the 1929 Stock Market Crash. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011.

Steele, Ian K. Warpaths: Invasions of North America. Bridgewater, NJ: Replica Books, 2000.

Taylor, Alan, and Eric Foner. American Colonies: The Settling of North America. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.

Townsend, Camilla. Malintzin’s Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 2006.

Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Goodwives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England 1650-1750. New York: Random House, 1986.

Weber, David J. The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

Woloch, Nancy. Women and the American Experience. 5th ed. New-York: McGraw Hill, 2011.

Websites

New Netherland Institute, http://www.newnetherlandinstitute.org/

The main website of an institute dedicated to promoting a broader public awareness of the history of Dutch New Netherland.

Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library, http://www.leventhalmap.org/

A collection of 7,700 digitized maps dating from the fifteenth century to the present, as well as lesson plans for use with students.

Poetry Foundation, http://www.poetryfoundation.org/

An archive of poetry, short biographies, and scholarly articles that spans centuries of American and world history.

Poets.org http://www.poets.org/

An archive of poetry, short biographies, and scholarly articles that spans centuries of American and world history.

Voyages, The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, http://www.slavevoyages.org/

A fully searchable online database of over 36,000 Atlantic slaving voyages that also provides analysis of the data and educational materials.

Virtual Museum of New France, https://www.historymuseum.ca/virtual-museum-of-new-france/

A fully interactive and comprehensive history of the founding and growth of New France by the Canadian Museum of History.

Torture and Truth: Angelique and the Burning of Montreal, http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/contexte/laville/indexen.html

A lesson guide and complete set of archival records for teaching about the 1734 trial of Marie-Josèphe Angélique.

Women Have Always Worked

“Women Have Always Worked,” a free massive open online course produced in collaboration with Columbia University, is the first full-length Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on the history of women in America. Led by Columbia professor emerita Alice Kessler-Harris, the course includes interviews with eminent historians, close-up discussions of materials in the New-York Historical Society collections, museum tours, and interactive elements.

“Women Have Always Worked” connects to many of the resources in Early Encounters. Learn more below:

Enslaved Women with Deborah Gray White: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L17av6EN58A

Native Families: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qpi1QrBjkT0

Widows in Colonial America with Carol Berkin: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WP6YTfKbJx8

Structuring Gender in Colonial America, Coverture: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1pa3znzeKws

Rebellious Women: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UsFLkAXm_rk