1948 – 1977 Growth and Turmoil Supplemental Materials

Art Activities

Political Buttons

Political buttons in the United States can be traced all the way back to President George Washington’s first inauguration in 1789, but the pinback buttons we know today first appeared in 1896. These celluloid buttons, made by sealing a paper disc under a layer of clear plastic onto metal backing, presented mass-produced and colorful ways to make statements. These buttons quickly became both a popular advertising medium and a collectible. Buttons continued to be used for political campaigns, such as Shirley Chisholm’s run for the presidency and Bella Abzug’s congressional campaigns in the early 1970s. They were also used to show support for causes or social movements, such as those made to advocate for the release of activist and political prisoner Angela Davis. Today, people make and wear pinback buttons for a variety of social and political causes, as well as for personal expression.

Drawing inspiration from pinback buttons of the 1970s, students will create their own set of buttons that express the views of a social movement or political campaign of that time period. Students will consider the design elements that make the messaging of a button effective, and will also discuss pinback buttons as artifacts and material culture.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Zines and Revolutionaries

Women of many different races, cultures, and identities led activist groups and collectives across the 1960s and 1970s in pursuit of their beliefs. One of the ways that these groups shared ideas, spread information, and raised awareness was through the creation and distribution of pamphlets and newspapers. In the following decades, the sharing of information shifted in some groups to the creation of “do-it-yourself” zines. As a non-commercial way to challenge the mainstream and spark dialogue, zines continue to be a powerful form of ideological and creative expression for marginalized voices.

Students will read and analyze a variety of publications–pamphlets, newspapers, and newsletters–created and distributed by activist groups and collectives in the 1960s and 1970s. Drawing inspiration from the images and writings of W.A.R.N., the Young Lords Party, and the Furies, students will work in small groups to create zines responding to what they’ve learned about activist women’s groups during this time period.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Empowerment through Art

During the Jim Crow era, Black Americans fought back against racist stereotypes by circulating imagery that depicted Black progress and success. Frederick Douglass, for example, believed that photography had the power to challenge prejudice. In the 1960s and 1970s, Black Americans also conveyed messages of Black pride through the emerging Black Power and Black Arts movements. Black Power was a revolutionary movement that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s, emphasizing racial pride, economic empowerment, and the creation of political and cultural institutions. The Black Arts movement explored these concepts through poetry, literature, visual art, music, and theater. Existing both at the intersection and on the margins of Black Power and the Feminist movement, artist Betye Saar began creating assemblages that spoke to the experiences and resilience of Black women, and that confronted racism in America. While early 20th century European and American artists used assemblages to create surrealist representations of the unconscious or to disrupt the values of commercialized galleries with everyday materials, Saar’s assemblages reclaimed and recontextualized historical objects to create new symbols of Black strength and power.

After analyzing assemblages created by Betye Saar in 1972 and 2017, as well as the Jim Crow era imagery that Saar reclaimed in her work, students will create their own assemblages using collage materials and found objects. They will consider the political statements that Betye Saar made with her artwork, and choose a social or political issue that women advocated for in the 1960s and 1970s that still resonates today as the focus of their own pieces. Students will think about the significance of each element of the assemblage, and how they all come together aesthetically to convey a larger message.

To read and download the lesson plan for this art activity, click here.

Source Notes

Cold War Beginnings

The Kitchen Debate

  • Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History. 2 vols. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2014).
  • May, Elaine Tyler. Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era. (New York: Basic Books, 2017).

Post-War Consumerism

  • May, Elaine Tyler. Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era (New York: Basic Books, 2017).
  • Woloch, Nancy. Women and the American Experience. (New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2011).

Housing Disparities

  • Comerio, Mary C. “Pruitt Igoe and Other Stories.” JAE 34, no. 4 (1981): 26–31.
  • Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History. 2 vols. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2014).
  • Rothstein, Richard. The Color of Law (Liveright Publishing Corporation: New York, 2017).

Barbie and Christie

  • Avila, Rolando. “Barbie.” In Women in American History, Volume 4, edited by Peg A. Lamphier and Rosanne Welch. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2017, pp. 10–11.
  • Forman-Brunell, Miriam. “What Barbie Dolls Have to Say about Postwar American Culture.” Artifact Analysis: A Teacher’s Guide to Interpreting Objects and Writing History. Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies. http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/idealabs/ap/essays/barbie.htm. Accessed October 8, 2020.

Integrating Little Rock

  • “Minniejean Brown Trickey, Environmental and Civil Rights Activist.” Thirteen, New York Public Media, March 26, 2009. https://www.thirteen.org/unsungheroines/women-cat/minnijean-brown-trickey-environmental-and-civil-rights-activist/. Accessed September 18, 2020.
  • Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History. 2 vols. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2014).
  • Harvey, Lucy. “A Member of the Little Rock Nine Discusses Her Struggle to Attend Central High.” Smithsonian Institution, April 22, 2016. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/member-little-rock-nine-discusses-her-struggle-attend-central-high-180958870/. Accessed September 18, 2020.
  • Rone, Keila. “A member of the Little Rock Nine shares her memories.” “O Say Can You See?” Blog. National Museum of American History Museum, Smithsonian Institution, February 9, 2016. https://americanhistory.si.edu/blog/member-little-rock-nine-shares-her-memories. Accessed September 18, 2020.

Questioning Cold War Policy

  • New-York Historical Society. The Vietnam War: 1945–1975. New York: New-York Historical Society, in association with D. Giles London, 2017.
  • Papers of John F. Kennedy. Presidential Papers. White House Central Subject Files. National Security – Defense (ND). ND: 9-2-2: Condolence letters and communications: M: Executive. JFKWHCSF-0604-027. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, https://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/ JFKWHCSF-0604-027.aspx

The Pill

Life Story: Helen Gahagan Douglas

  • Lowry, Margaret M. S. “Pretty and Therefore ‘Pink’”: Helen Gahagan Douglas and the Rhetorical Constraints of US Political Discourse.” Rhetoric Review22, no. 3 (2003): 282–99.
  • Mitchell, Greg. Tricky Dick and the Pink Lady (New York: Random House, 1998).
  • O’Connor, Colleen M. “Imagine the Unimaginable: Helen Gahagan Douglas, Women, and the Bomb.” Southern California Quarterly67, no. 1 (1985): 35–50.
  • Scobie, Ingrid Winther. “Helen Gahagan Douglas: Broadway Star as California Politician.” California History66, no. 4 (1987): 242–61.

Life Story: Mamie Till-Mobley

  • Till-Mobley, Mamie, and Christopher Benson. Death of Innocence: The Story of the Hate Crime that Changed America (New York: Random House, 2003).
  • Gorn, Elliott J. Let the People See (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Life Story: Katherine Johnson

  • Johnson, Katherine. Reaching for the Moon: The Autobiography of a NASA Mathematician (New York: Atheneum Books, 2019).
  • Shetterly, Margot Lee. Hidden Figures (New York: HarperCollins, 2016).

Life Story: Christine Jorgensen

  • “Christine Jorgensen Childhood Residence,” NYC LBGT Historic Sites Project. Accessed November 1, 2020. https://www.nyclgbtsites.org/site/christine-jorgensen-childhood-residence/
  • Meyerowitz, Joanne. “Christine Jorgensen and the Story of How Sex Changed.” In Women’s America, ed. Linda K. Kerber, Jane Sherron de Hart, Cornelia Hughes Dayton, Judy Tzu-Chun Wu, 615–629 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).
  • Meyerowitz, Joanne. “Transforming Sex: Christine Jorgensen in the Postwar U.S.” OAH Magazine of History 20, no. 2 (2006): 16–20. Accessed November 1, 2020. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25162028.

Life Story: Linda Moy Chin

  • The New-York Historical Society Education Department is grateful for the materials provided by the family of Linda and Pang F. Chin. We especially acknowledge our collaborator Amy Chin, who so generously shared Linda’s story, told here and in the curriculum guide Chinese American: Exclusion/Inclusion.
  • Ngai, Mae M. Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004).

Life Story: Betty Friedan

  • Cumo, Christopher. “Friedan, Betty.” In Women in American History, Volume 4, ed. Peg A. Lamphier and Rosanne Welch. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2017, pp. 151–152.
  • Horowitz, Daniel. “Betty Friedan and the Origins of Feminism in Cold War America.” In Women’s America, ed. by Linda K. Kerber, Jane Sherron de Hart, Cornelia Hughes Dayton, Judy Tzu-Chun Wu, 569–58 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).
  • Kaplan, Marion. “Betty Friedan.” Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 27 February 2009. Jewish Women’s Archive. Accessed 10/11/2020. https://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/friedan-betty.

Growing Tensions

Loving v. Virginia

  • Gonzales, Angela. “Loving and the Legacy of Indian Removal.” Contexts16, no. 4 (2017): 17–18. doi:10.2307/26370585. Accessed November 10, 2020.
  • “Loving v. Virginia.” Oyez. https://www.oyez.org/cases/1966/395. Accessed November 10, 2020.
  • “Rethinking Marriage: Loving v. Virginia, 1967; Griswold v Connecticut, 1965…” In Women’s America, edited by Linda K. Kerber, Jane Sherron de Hart, Cornelia Hughes Dayton, Judy Tzu-Chun Wu, 669–677 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).

The Environmental Movement

  • New-York Historical Society. Hudson Rising: Classroom Materials for the Exhibition. New York, 2019.
  • Stoll, Mark. “Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring, A Book that Changed the World. Environment & the Society Portal, Virtual Exhibitions. The Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society. http://www.environmentandsociety.org/exhibitions/rachel-carsons-silent-spring Accessed October 20, 2012.

Freedom Summer

  • Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History. 2 vols. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2014).
  • Ransby, Barbara. Ella Baker & the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2013).
  • Murphy, Carla. “Remembering Freedom Summer 1964: Heather Booth.” June 16, 2014. Accessed October 25, 2020. https://www.colorlines.com/articles/remembering-freedom-summer-1964-heather-booth.

Voting Rights and Violent Suppression

  • Ransby, Barbara. Ella Baker & the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2013).

Occupying Alcatraz

  • Langston, Donna Hightower. “American Indian Women’s Activism in the 1960s and 1970s.” Hypatia18, no. 2 (2003): 114–32.
  • Treuer, David. “How a Native American Resistance Held Alcatraz for 18 Months.” The New York Times (Nov. 20, 2019).

Shirley Chisholm Runs for President

  • Lynch, Shola, dir. Chisholm ’72: Unbought & Unbossed. (New York: Realside Productions, 2004).

Watergate and Defending the Constitution

  • Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History. 2 vols. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2014).
  • Pruden III, William H. “Jordan, Barbara.” In Women in American History, Volume 4, edited by Peg A. Lamphier and Rosanne Welch. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2017, pp. 157–158.

American Women in Hanoi

  • Another Mother for Peace Records, 1964–1978, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, https://www.swarthmore.edu/library/peace/DG100-150/DG102AMP.htm (accessed 5/13/17 by M. Waters).
  • “Mrs. Joe Griffith En Route to North Vietnam,” The Cornell Daily Sun (December 15, 1966).
  • Swerdlow, Amy. Women Strike for Peace: Traditional Motherhood and Radical Politics in the 1960s (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).
  • Tischler, Barbara L. “Antiwar Activism and Emerging Feminism in the Late 1960s: The Times They Were A’Changing.” Solidarity, https://www.solidarity-us.org/node/1681 (accessed 5/28/17 by M. Waters)
  • “3 Women, Home, Say North Vietnam Won’t Capitulate,” The New York Times (January 11, 1967).

Life Story: Antonia Pantoja

  • Sánchez Korrol, Virginia. “Antonia Pantoja and the Power of Community Action.” In Latina Legacies, edited by Vicki L. Ruiz and Virginia Sánchez Korrol, 209–224 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).
  • Torres, Lourdes. “Queering Puerto Rican Women’s Narratives: Gaps and Silences in the Memoirs of Antonia Pantoja and Luisita López Torregrosa.” Meridians9, no. 1 (2009): 83–112.

Life Story: Dorothy Bolden

  • Nadasen, Premilla. Household Workers Unite: The Untold Story of African American Women Who Built a Movement. (Boston: Beacon Press, 2015).
  • Slotnik, Daniel E. “Overlooked No more: Dorothy Bolden, Who Started a Movement for Domestic Workers.” The New York Times (Feb. 20, 2019).
  • White, Deborah Gray. Too Heavy a Load: Black Women in Defense of Themselves, 1894–1994. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999).

Life Story: Nancy Sanchez

  • Richard Nixon, “Address to the Nation on the Situation in Southeast Asia,” April 7, 1971, Miller Center, https:// millercenter.org/the-presidency/presidential-speeches/ april-7-1971-address-nation-situation-southeast-asia (accessed 7/19/17 by M. Waters)
  • Interview with Aida Nancy Sanchez, 6/29/2004, Library of Congress, Veterans History Project, http://memory.loc.gov/diglib/vhp/story/ loc.natlib.afc2001001.43733/transcript?ID=mv0001 (accessed 5/28/2017 by M. Waters)
  • Nancy Sanchez, Letters from Vietnam, https://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/rr/ s01/cw/students/leeann/historyandcollections/history/ lrnmresan2.html (accessed 5/29/2017 by M. Waters).

Life Story: Marsha P. Johnson

  • Carter, David. Stonewall: The Riots that Sparked a Gay Revolution. (London: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2010).
  • Duberman, Martin. Stonewall: The Definitive Story of the LGBTQ Rights Uprising that Change America. (New York: Plume, 2019).
  • France, David, dir. The Death and Life of Marsha P. Johnson. (New York: Public Square Films, 2017).
  • Kasino, Michael, dir. Pay It No Mind—The Life and Times of Marsha P. Johnson. (San Francisco: Frameline Films, 2012).
  • “Sylvia Rivera and Marsha P. Johnson: Listen to the Newly Unearthed Interview with Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries.” Women at the Center. The New-York Historical Society, June 26, 2019. http://womenatthecenter.nyhistory.org/gay-power-is-trans-history-street-transvestite-action-revolutionaries/#_ednref3.

Life Story: Ella Baker

  • Payne, Charles. “Ella Baker and Models of Social Change.” Signs14, no. 4 (1989): 885–99.
  • Ransby, Barbara. Ella Baker & the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2013).

Life Story: Dolores Huerta

  • Chávez, Alicia. “Dolores Huerta and the United Farm Workers.” In Latina Legacies, edited by Vicki L. Ruiz and Virginia Sánchez Korrol, 240–254 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).
  • “Dolores Huerta” Dolores Huerta Foundation. Dolores Huerta Foundation. https://doloreshuerta.org/dolores-huerta/. Accessed November 3, 2020.

Feminism and the Backlash

Why Women’s Liberation?

Women’s Strike for Equality

  • Spruill, Marjorie J. Divided We Stand: The Battle Over Women’s Rights and Family Values That Polarized American Politics. (New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017).
  • Swinth, Kirsten. Feminism’s Forgotten Fight: The Unfinished Struggle for Work and Family. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2018).

Lesbians in Revolt

  • Spruill, Marjorie J. Divided We Stand: The Battle Over Women’s Rights and Family Values That Polarized American Politics (New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017).
  • Taylor, Verta, and Leila J. Rupp. “Women’s Culture and Lesbian Feminist Activism: A Reconsideration of Cultural Feminism.” Signs19, no. 1 (1993): 32–61. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3174744. Accessed November 17, 2020.
  • Valk, Anne M. “Living a Feminist Lifestyle: The Intersection of Theory and Action in a Lesbian Feminist Collective.” Feminist Studies28, no. 2 (2002): 303–332. doi:10.2307/3178744. Accessed November 17, 2020.

Empowerment through Art

Panther Sisters on Women’s Liberation

  • Farmer, Ashley D. Remaking Black Power: How Black Women Transformed an Era. (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2017).
  • “The Movement Newspaper.” The Freedom Archives, https://search.freedomarchives.org/search.php?view_collection=26&year=1969. Accessed November 10, 2020.
  • Spencer, Robyn C. The Revolution Has Come. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2016).

Fighting Machismo

  • “About Palante.” The Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives at New York University. http://dlib.nyu.edu/palante/about/. Accessed November 10, 2020.
  • Morales, Iris. Through the Eyes of Rebel Women. (New York: Red Sugarcane Press, Inc., 2016).

Women of All Red Nations

  • Johnson, Sandie. “Women of All Red Nations.” Off Our Backs10, no. 7 (1980): 12.
  • King, Christina D. ,and Elizabeth A. Castle, dirs. Warrior Women. (Mansfield, OH: Castle King LLC, 2018).
  • Langston, Donna Hightower. “American Indian Women’s Activism in the 1960s and 1970s.” Hypatia18, no. 2 (2003): 114–32.
  • United States Commission on Civil Rights. National Indian Civil Rights Issues: Hearing Held In Washington, D.C., March 19–20, 1979. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1979.

Privacy and Pregnancy

  • Roe v. Wade. https://www.oyez.org/cases/1971/70-18. Accessed November 11, 2020.
  • “Roe v. Wade, 1973; Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, 1992 . . .” In Women’s America, edited by Linda K. Kerber, Jane Sherron de Hart, Cornelia Hughes Dayton, Judy Tzu-Chun Wu, 610–612 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).

Fighting in the Courts

  • About the ACLU Women’s Rights Project. ACLU, https://www.aclu.org/other/about-aclu-womens-rights-project. Accessed November 11, 2020.
  • Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, Mary Hartnett and Wendy W. Williams. My Own Words (New York: Simon & Schuster. 2016).
  • Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld. Oyez, https://www.oyez.org/cases/1974/73-1892. Accessed November 11, 2020.

Life Story: Angela Davis

  • “AFSC Southern Student Program.” American Friends Service Committee, February 8, 2012. https://www.afsc.org/story/afsc-southern-student-program
  • Caldwell, Earl. “A Shotgun that Miss Davis Purchase is Linked to the Fatal Shooting of Judge.” The New York Times (April 18, 1972).
  • Caldwell, Earl. “Angela Davis Aquitted on All Charges.” The New York Times (June 5, 1972).
  • Davis, Angela, and Tony Platt. “Interview with Angela Davis.” Social Justice 40, no. 1/2 (131-132) (2014): 37-53. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24361660. Accessed November 14, 2020.
  • Davis, Angela. Open Letter from Angela Davis to High School Students Written from Marin County Jail. March 23, 1971. Courtesy of Schlesinger Library.
  • Farmer, Ashley D. Remaking Black Power: How Black Women Transformed an Era (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, 2017).
  • Woods, V.C. “Davis, Angela Yvonne.” In Women in American History, Volume 4, ed. by Peg A. Lamphier and Rosanne Welch. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2017, pp. 126–128.

Life Story: Patsy Mink

Life Story: Billie Jean King

  • Ware, Susan. Game, Set, Match: Billie Jean King and the Revolution in Women’s Sports. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

Life Story: Bella Abzug

  • Cook, Blanche Wiesen. “Bella Abzug.” Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 27 February 2009. Jewish Women’s Archive.
  • Spruill, Marjorie J. Divided We Stand: The Battle Over Women’s Rights and Family Values That Polarized American Politics (New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017).

Life Story: Phyllis Schlafly

  • Clutterbuck-Cook, Anna J. “Schlafly, Phyllis (1924–).” In Women in American History, Volume 4, ed. Peg A. Lamphier and Rosanne Welch. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2017, pp. 228–229.
  • Spruill, Marjorie J. Divided We Stand: The Battle Over Women’s Rights and Family Values That Polarized American Politics (New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017).
  • Swinth, Kirsten. Feminism’s Forgotten Fight: The Unfinished Struggle for Work and Family (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2018).
  • Schlafly, Phyllis. “The Thoughts of One Who Loves Life as a Woman . . .” in Women’s America: Refocusing the Past, ed. Linda K. Kerber, Jane Sherron de Hart, Cornelia Hughes Dayton, Judy Tzu-Chun Wu, 610–612. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).

Suggested Reading

Books and Articles

  • Farmer, Ashley D. Remaking Black Power: How Black Women Transformed an Era. (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2017).
  • Gorn, Elliott J. Let the People See (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • May, Elaine Tyler. Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era. (New York: Basic Books, 2017).
  • Meyerowitz, Joanne. “Christine Jorgensen and the Story of How Sex Changed.” In Women’s America, ed. Linda K. Kerber, Jane Sherron de Hart, Cornelia Hughes Dayton, Judy Tzu-Chun Wu, 615–629 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).
  • Mitchell, Greg. Tricky Dick and the Pink Lady (New York: Random House, 1998).
  • Nadasen, Premilla. Household Workers Unite: The Untold Story of African American Women Who Built a Movement. (Boston: Beacon Press, 2015).
  • Ngai, Mae M. Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004).
  • Ransby, Barbara. Ella Baker & the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2013).
  • Rothstein, Richard. The Color of Law (Liveright Publishing Corporation: New York, 2017).
  • Ruiz, Vicki L. and Virginia Sánchez Korrol, eds. Latina Legacies. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).
  • Shetterly, Margot Lee. Hidden Figures (New York: HarperCollins, 2016).
  • Spencer, Robyn C. The Revolution Has Come. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2016).
  • Spruill, Marjorie J. Divided We Stand: The Battle Over Women’s Rights and Family Values That Polarized American Politics (New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017).
  • Swinth, Kirsten. Feminism’s Forgotten Fight: The Unfinished Struggle for Work and Family  (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2018).
  • White, Deborah Gray. Too Heavy a Load: Black Women in Defense of Themselves, 1894–1994. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999).